A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as an adverb and a conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc. -- X after, X alike, as (soon as), because, X every, for, + forasmuch, + from whence, + how(-soever), X if, (so) that ((thing) which, wherein), X though, + until, + whatsoever, when, where (+ -as, -in, -of, -on, -soever, -with), which, whilst, + whither(- soever), who(-m, -soever, -se). As it is indeclinable, it is often accompanied by the personal pronoun expletively, used to show the connection.
אֲשֶׁר particle of relation (Moabite id.; origin dubious:
1 according to TsepreghiDiss. Lugd. p. 171 MühlauBö. Lb. ii. 79 n. StaMorg. Forsch. 1875, 188; Lb. § 167 HomZMG 1878, 708 ff. Müll§ 153 SayceHebraica. ii. 51 LagM. i. 255 & especially KraeHebraica. vi. 298 ff, originally a substantive 'place' = footstep, mark, (do.), אֲתַר, place, Assyrian ašru, used (see Kraetz.) both as a substantive 'there, where,' and as a relative of place 'where': in Hebrew this development has advanced further, and it has become a relative sign Generally. The chief objection to this explanation is that it would isolate Hebrew from the other Semitic languages, in which pronouns are formed regularly from demonstrative roots (compare also NöZMG 1886, 738).
2 according to PhiSt. C. 73 SperlingNota Rel. im Hebr. 1876, 15-22 for אֲשֶׁל, developed from the relative שׁ (q. v.) by (1) the prefixing of either a merely prosthetic א, or, better, a pronominal א (giving rise to אש, the form of the relative in Phoenician), and (2) the addition of the demonstrative root ל [found also in הַלָּזֶה אֵלָּה, אֵל, (q. v.), he who, who (plural)]: the main objection to this explanation is the change of ל to ר, which is hardly rendered probable by the compare of Syriac by side of הָלְכָּא ᵑ7. 1 seems preferable, the primitive root having acquired different significations in the different Semitic languages, and having been weakened in Hebrew to a mere particle of relation). A
sign of relation, bringing the clause introduced by it into relation with an antecedent clause. As a rule אֲשֶׁר is a mere
connecting link, and requires to be supplemented (see the grammars) by a pronominal affix, or other word, such as שָׁם, defining the nature of the relation more precisely: e.g. Genesis 1:11 זַרֵעוֺבֿוֺ אֲשֶׁר literally as to which, its seed is in it = in which is its seed, Psalm 1:4 like the chaff רוּחַ אֲשֶׁרתִּֿדְּפֶנּוּ as to which, the wind drives it = which the wind drives, etc.; & so אֲשֶׁרשָׁ֗֗֗ם = where, אֲשֶׁרמִ֗֗֗שָּׁם = whence, Genesis 2:11; 3:23; 20:13 etc. Sometimes also (see below) the relation expressed by it is specifically temporal, local causal, etc. More particularly
1 it includes its pronominal antecedent, whether in the nominative or oblique cases, as Numbers 22:6 יוּאָר תָּאֹר וַאֲשֶׁר and he whom thou cursest is cursed, Exodus 4:12 and I will teach thee תְּדַבֵּר אֲשֶׁר that which thou shalt say; and with particles or prepositions, as אֲשֶׁר אֵת (according to the context) him who . . ., those who . . ., that which . . .; לַאֲשֶׁר to him who . . . Genesis 43:16, to those who . . . 47:24, to that which 27:8; מֵאֲשֶׁר Judges 16:30; 2 Samuel 18:18 than those whom; Leviticus 27:24 מֵאִתּוֺ קָנָהוּ לַאֲשֶׁר to him from whom he bought it, Numbers 5:7; Isaiah 24:2 בוֺ נשֶׁא כַּאֲשֶׁר like him against whom there is a creditor.
2 instances of אֲשֶׁר followed by a pronominal affix, or by מִשָּׁם שָֽׁמָּה, שָׁם,, are so common that the examples cited above will be sufficient. Very rarely there occurs the anomalous construction אֲשֶׁר עִם Genesis 31:32 for עִמּוֺ אֲשֶׁר (see 44:9), בַּאֲשֶׁר Isaiah 47:12 for לַאֲשֶׁר בָּהֶם, אֲשֶׁר for אֲשֶׁרלָ֗֗֗הֶם Ezekiel 23:40: Psalm 119:49 see under אשׁר על. It is followed by the pronoun in the nominative, in the following cases: — (a) immediately, mostly before an adjective or participle, Genesis 9:3 all moving things הוּאחַֿי אֲשֶׁר which are living, Leviticus 11:26; Numbers 9:13; 14:8, 27; 35:31; Deuteronomy 20:20; 1 Samuel 10:19 (see Dr) 2 Kings 25:19 ("" Jeremiah 52:25 היה) 27:9; Ezekiel 43:19; Haggai 1:9; Ruth 4:15; Nehemiah 2:18; Ecclesiastes 7:26; before a verb 2 Kings 22:13 (omitted 2 Chronicles 34:21). (b) in a negative sentence, at the end: Genesis 7:2; 17:12; Numbers 17:5; Deuteronomy 17:15 הוּא אָחִיךָ לֹא אֲשֶׁר who is not thy brother, 20:15; Judges 19:12; 1 Kings 8:41 "" 9:20 "". N.B. Psalm 16:3 הֵ֑מָּה בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר is an unparalleled expression for 'who are in the land'; read וג אַדִּירֵי הֵמָּה בָּאָ֑רֶץ ׳אֲשֶׁר 'the saints that are in the land, they (המה) are the nobles, in whom,' etc.
3 sometimes (though rarely) the defining adjunct is a pronoun of 1 or 2 person as well as of 3 person. In such cases it is strictly to be rendered I who . . ., thou who, etc.; Hosea 14:4 יָתוֺם יְרֻחַם אֲשֶׁרבְּֿךָ thou by whom the fatherless is compassionated ! Jeremiah 31:32 I, whose covenant they brake, 32:19; Isaiah 49:23; Job 37:17f. thou whose garments are warm . . ., canst thou ? etc., Psalm 71:19; 71:20; 144:12 we whose sons, etc., 139:15 my frame was not hidden from thee, בַסֵּתֶר אֲ֯שֶׁרעֻֿשֵּׂיתִי I who was wrought in secret (= though I was wrought in secret), Exodus 14:13 for ye who have seen the Egyptians to-day, — ye shall not see them again for ever! (compare Psalm 41:9).
4 the defining pron. adjunct is dispensed with —
a. when אֲשֶׁר represents the simple subject of a sentence, or the direct object of a verb: so constantly, as Genesis 2:1 the work עָשָׂה אֲשֶׁר which he made, 3:3 the tree הַגָּן בְּתוֺךְ אֲשֶׁר which is in the midst of the garden, etc.
b. after words denoting time, place, or manner, so that אֲשֶׁר then becomes equivalent to when, where, why: (a) Genesis 6:4 אֲשֶׁר כֵן אַחֲרֵי afterwards, when, etc. (compare 2 Chronicles 35:20) Genesis 45:6 there are still 5 years חָרִישׁ אֵין אֲשֶׁר when there shall be no plowing, Joshua 14:10; 1 Kings 22:25; after יוֺם or הַיּוֺם Deuteronomy 4:10; Judges 4:14; 1 Samuel 24:5 (see Dr) 2 Samuel 19:25; Jeremiah 20:14 and elsewhere; similarly Genesis 40:13. (β) 35:13 אִתּוֺ דִּבֶּר אֲשֶׁר בַּמָּקוֺם in the place where he spake with him, 35:14; 39:20; Numbers 13:27; 22:26; Deuteronomy 1:31 in the desert which thou sawest, where (accents Ke Di), 8:15; 1 Kings 8:9 (unless הַבְּרִית לוּחוֺת has here fallen out: see ᵐ5 & Deuteronomy 9:9) Isaiah 55:11; 64:10; Psalm 84:4. So (γ) in אֲשֶׁר אֶל to (the place) which (or whither) Exodus 32:34; Ruth 1:16; אֶלכָּֿלאֲֿשֶׁר to every (place) whither Joshua 1:16; Proverbs 17:8; בַּאֲשֶׁר in (the place) where Judges 5:27; 17:8-9, 1 Samuel 23:13; 2 Kings 8:1; Ruth 1:16-17, Job 39:30, once only with שָׁם Genesis 21:17; אֲשֶׁר בְּכֹל wheresoever Joshua 1:7, 9; Judges 2:15; 1 Samuel 14:47; 18:5; 2 Samuel 7:7; 2 Kings 18:7; מֵאֲשֶׁר from (the place) where = whencesoever Exodus 5:11; Ruth 2:9; עַלאֲֿשֶׁר to (the place) whither (or which) 2 Samuel 15:20; 1 Kings 18:12; עַלכָּֿלאֲֿשֶׁר Jeremiah 1:7. (δ) ֗֗֗ אֲשֶׁר הַדָּבָר זֶה this is the reason that or why . . . Joshua 5:4; 1 Kings 11:27.
c. more extreme instances Leviticus 14:22, 30, 31; Numbers 6:21; Deuteronomy 7:19 (wherewith), 28:20; 1 Samuel 2:32 (wherein), 1 Kings 2:26; Judges 8:15 (about whom), Isaiah 8:12 (where יאמר would be followed normally by לוֺ), 31:6 turn ye to (him as to) whom they have deeply rebelled, 47:15; Zephaniah 3:11; Ecclesiastes 3:9; 1 Kings 14:19 (= how).
d. it is dispensed with only in appearance after וג (אָמַרְתִּי אָמַר ׅ׳אֲשֶׁר followed by the words used, its place being really taken by a pronoun in the speech which follows, as Genesis 3:17 the tree as to which I commanded thee saying, Thou shalt not eat from it, Exodus 22:8; Deuteronomy 28:68; Judges 7:4 (זֶה) 8:15 (where the noun repeated takes the place of the pronoun, compare Deuteronomy 9:2) 1 Samuel 9:17 (זֶה):23 +; compare 2 Samuel 11:16; 2 Kings 17:12; 21:4.
6 אֲשֶׁר occasionally receives its closer definition by a substantive following it, in other words, its logical antecedent is inserted in the relative clause: (a) in the phrase peculiar to Jeremiah, י דְבַר הָיָה ׳אֲשֶׁר יר ׳אֶל that which came (of) the word of ׳י to Jeremiah Jeremiah 14:1; 46:1; 47:1; 49:34 (compare Ew§ 334); (b) Exodus 25:9; Numbers 33:4; 1 Samuel 25:30; 2 Kings 8:12; 12:6 בָּֽדֶק׃ שָׁם אֲשֶׁריִֿמָּצֵא לְכֹל Ezekiel 12:25; compare the Ethiopic usage Di§ 201; (c) (antecedant repeated) Genesis 49:30 = 50:13, 1 Samuel 25:30 (׳י repeated), Isaiah 54:9 (probably) as to which I sware that, etc., Amos 5:1 which I take up over you (as) a dirge.
7 ל ׳אֲשֶׁר that (belongs, belong, belonged) to, is used
a. either alone or preceded by כָּלֿ to express (all) that (belongs) to, as Genesis 14:23 מִכָּלאֲֿשֶׁרלְֿךָ of all that is thine, 31:1 לְאָבִינוּ מֵאֲשֶׁר of that which was our father's, 32:24 & sent over אֶתאֲֿשֶׁרלֿוֺ that which he had, + often
b. as a circumlocution of the Genitive, as Genesis 29:9 לְאָבִיהָ אֲשֶׁר עִםהַֿצּאֹן with the sheep that were her father's, 40:5; 47:4; Leviticus 9:8; Judges 6:11; 1 Samuel 25:7 אֲשֶׁרלְֿךָ הָרֹעִים, 2 Samuel 14:31 אֲשֶׁרלִֿי אֶתהַֿחֶלְקָה, 23:8; 1 Kings 1:8, 33 אֲשֶׁרלִֿי הַמִּרְדָּה עַל upon mine own mule, 1:49; 4:2; 2 Kings 11:10; 16:13; Ruth 2:21; and especially in the case of a compound expression depending on a single Genitive, as Genesis 23:9; 40:5; 41:43 אֲשֶׁרלֿוֺ הַמִּשְׁנֶה מִרְכֶּבֶת the chariot of the second rank which he had, Exodus 38:30; Judges 3:20; 6:25; 1 Samuel 17:40; 21:8 לְשָׁאוּל אֲשֶׁר הָרֹעִים אֲבִיר the mightiest of Saul's herdmen, 24:5 אֲשֶׁרלְֿשָׁאוּל אֶתכְּֿנַףהַֿמְּעִיל, 2 Samuel 2:8 Saul's captain of the host, 1 Kings 10:28; 15:20; 22:31; Jeremiah 52:17; Ruth 4:3.
c. with names of places (especially such as do not readily admit the stative construct) Judges 18:28; 19:14 לְבִנְיָמִין אֲשֶׁר הַגִּבְעָה Gibeah (the hill) of Benjamin, 20:4; 1 Samuel 17:1; 1 Kings 15:27; 16:15; 17:9; 19:3; 2 Kings 14:11. compare שֶׁל (q. v.) which in Rabb, like the Aramaic -דִּיל, , is in habitual use as a mark of the Genitive. — N.B. In Aramaic also דּי, , without ל, expresses the Genitive relation, as דִימַֿלְכָּא מִלְּתָא, literally the word, that of the king = the word of the king. The few apparent cases of a similar use of אשׁר are, however, too foreign to the General usage of the language to be regarded otherwise than as due to textual error: 1 Samuel 13:8 read אָמַר אֲשֶׁר (or שָׂם Exodus 19:5) שְׁמוּאֵל (ᵐ5 εἶπε); 1 Kings 11:25 supply עָשָׂה (ᵐ5 ἣν ἐποίησεν); 2 Kings 25:10 supply אֵת with (as "" Jeremiah 52:14); 2 Chronicles 34:22 read הַמֶּלֶךְ אָמַר וַאֲשֶׁר (compare ᵐ5) and those whom the king appointed (abbreviated from 2 Kings 22:14); compare Ew§ 292 a, b with note.
8 אֲשֶׁר becomes, like Aramaic דּי, , a
conjunction approximating in usage to כִּי: thus
a. = quod, ὅτι, that, subordinating an entire sentence to a verb of knowing, remembering, etc. (a) with אֵת Deuteronomy 9:7 forget not הִקְצַפְתָּ אֲשֶׁר אֵת the fact that (= how) thou provokedst, etc., 29:15; Joshua 2:10; 1 Samuel 24:11; 24:19; 2 Samuel 11:20 know ye not אֲשֶׁריֹֿרוּ אֵת how they shoot from off the wall ? 2 Kings 8:12; Isaiah 38:3 +? 1 Kings 14:19; 2 Kings 14:15; 20:20. Of time (peculiarly) 2 Samuel 14:15 אֲשֶׁר עַתָּה now (is it) that . . . Zechariah 8:20 (probably) yet (shall it be) that . . . 8:23; compare שֶׁ כִּמְעַט Song of Solomon 3:4. (β) without אֵת (not very common, כִּי being usually employed): after יָדַע Exodus 11:7; Ezekiel 20:26 (very strange in Ezekiel: see Hi) Job 9:5 (Ew De Di) Ecclesiastes 8:12, רָאָה Deuteronomy 1:31 (RV) 1 Samuel 18:15, הִתְוַדָּה to confess Leviticus 5:5; 26:40 b, הִשְׁבִּיעַ 1 Kings 22:16 (caused to swear that . . .); after a noun Isaiah 38:7 אֲשֶׁר הָאוֺת the sign that . . . ("" 2 Kings 20:9 כִּי): with growing frequency in late Hebrew, 2 Chronicles 2:7, and especially Nehemiah, Esther: Nehemiah 2:5, 10; 7:65 (= Ezra 2:63) Nehemiah 8:14-15, 10:31; 13:1, 19, 22; Esther 1:19; 2:10; 3:4; 4:11; 6:2; 8:11; Ecclesiastes 3:22 (מֵאֲשֶׁר) 5:4; 7:18 (with טוֺב: contrast Ruth 2:22) 2:22; Ruth 2:29; Ruth 8:12; Ruth 8:14; Ruth 9:1; Daniel 1:8 (twice in verse). (γ) prefixed to a direct citation, like כִּי q. v. (= ὅτι recitativum) (rare) 1 Samuel 15:20; 2 Samuel 1:4; 2:4 (see Dr) Psalm 10:6 (probably), Nehemiah 4:6.
b. it is resolvable into so that: Genesis 11:7 יִשְׁמְעוּ לֹא אֲשֶׁר so that they understand not, etc., 13:16; 22:14 יֵאָמֵר אֲשֶׁר so that it is said, Exodus 20:26; Deuteronomy 4:10, 40 לְךָ יִיטַב אֲשֶׁר 6:3; 28:27, 51; 1 Kings 3:12-13, 2 Kings 9:37; Malachi 3:19.
c. it has a causal force, forasmuch as, in that, since: Genesis 30:18; 31:49 and Mizpah, אָמַר אֲשֶׁר for that he said, 34:13, 27; 42:21 we are guilty, רָאִינוּ אֲשֶׁר we who saw (or, in that we saw), Numbers 20:13 Meribah, because they strove there, Deuteronomy 3:24; Joshua 4:7, 23; 22:31; Judges 9:17; 1 Samuel 2:23; 15:15; 20:42 go in peace, נִשְׁבַּעְנוּ אֲשֶׁר forasmuch as we have sworn, 25:26 thou whom (= or, seeing that) ׳י hath withholden, 2 Samuel 2:5 blessed are ye of עֲשִׂיתֶם אֲשֶׁר ׳י,, who (οἵτινες) have done (or in that ye have done), 1 Kings 3:19; 15:5; 2 Kings 12:3; 17:4; 23:26; Jeremiah 16:13; Ecclesiastes 8:11-12, (Hi De Now). Here also belongs its use in לָמָּה אֲשֶׁר since why . . . ? (= lest) Daniel 1:10: see below לָמָּה. On כֵּן עַל אֲשֶׁר forasmuch as Job 34:27 see below כֵּן עַל כִּי.
d. it expresses a condition (rare & peculiar): Leviticus 4:22 יֶחֱטָא נָשִׂיא אֲשֶׁר in (case) that = when (or if) a ruler sinneth (4:3; 4:13; Leviticus 4:37 אִם), Numbers 5:29 (explained differently by Ew§ 334 a), Deuteronomy 11:27 and the blessing תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֲשֶׁר if ye hearken (11:28 אִם), 18:22 Ges, Joshua 4:21 ֗֗֗ יִשְׁאָלוּן אֲשֶׁר when they ask . . ., then . . . (4:6 כִּי), Isaiah 31:4. In 1 Kings 8:33 ("" 2 Chronicles 6:24 כִּי, compare Kings 6:35; 6:37) אֲשֶׁר may be rendered indifferently because or when. Once, similarly, אֲשֶׁר אֵת 1 Kings 8:31 ("" אִם).
e. perhaps (exceptionally) = כַּאֲשֶׁר, as, Jeremiah 33:22; Isaiah 54:9 (followed by כֵּן; but כֵּן q. v. sometimes stands without כאשׁר, & אשׁר may in these passages connect with what precedes); according to some also Jeremiah 48:8; Psalm 106:34 (in a connection where כַּאֲשֶׁר would be more usual: אֲשֶׁר may however be the object of אָמַר). In 1 Samuel 16:7 הָאָדָם יִרְאֶה אֲשֶׁר read כַּאֲשֶׁר, see Dr.
f. combined with prepositions, אֲשֶׁר converts them into conjunctions: see below, מֵאֲשֶׁר כַּאֲשֶׁר, בַּאֲשֶׁר,. On its use similarly with תַּחַת מִמְּנֵי, עֵקֶב, עַל, עַד, כְּפִי, לְמַעַן, יַעַן, דְּבַר, עַל בַּעֲבוּר, מִבְּלִי, אַחַר, (אַחֲרֵי), see these words. — הַאֲשֶׁר, with ה interrogative, occurs once, 2 Kings 6:22. In Deuteronomy 15:14 also read כַּאֲשֶׁר: note ברכך before.
Note1אֲשֶׁר being a connecting link, without any perfectly corresponding equivalent in English, its force is not unfrequently capable of being represented in more than one way. See e.g. 2 Samuel 2:5 (above
8c), Isaiah 28:12 unto whom he said, or for that he said to them.
Note 2. The opinion that אֲשֶׁר has an asseverative force (like כִּי, q. v.), or introduces the apodosis, is not probably, being both alien to its General usage & not required by the passages alleged. Render Isaiah 8:20 either 'Surely according to this word will those speak who have no dawn,' or '. . . will they speak when (compare above
b. adverb in (the place) where: above 4b (γ).
d. Jonah 1:8 לְמִי בַּאֲשֶׁר on account of whom ? (לְ בַּאֲשֶׁר on account of, framed on model of Aramaic בְּדִיל: see below שֶׁל).
כַּאֲשֶׁר see below כְּ.
מֵאֲשֶׁר17 a. from (or than) that which (him, them, etc., that . . .) Genesis 3:11; Exodus 29:27 (twice in verse); Numbers 6:11 (see Leviticus 4:26; Joshua 10:11; Judges 16:30; Isaiah 47:13 +; than that . . . Ecclesiastes 3:22; מֵאֲשֶׁר לְבַד Esther 4:11.
b. adverb from (the place) where: above 4a (β).
c. conjunction from (the fact) that . . ., since Isaiah 43:4.
כַּאֲשֶׁר conjunction according as, as, when (compare for the combined Aramaic כַּד כְּדִי,) —
1 according to that which, according as, as:
a. Genesis 34:12 I will give אלי תאמרו כאשׁר according as ye shall (or may) say unto me, 44:1; Exodus 8:23; Numbers 22:8; 1 Samuel 2:16; Genesis 34:22 if we are circumcised נמולים הם כאשׁר; 41:21 בתחלה כאשׁר as at the beginning, so בראשׁונה ׳כ Joshua 8:5-6, 2 Samuel 7:10; Exodus 5:13 התבן בהיות ׃כאשׁר Genesis 7:9 they came in two by two אלהִים צוה כאשׁר, as God commanded Noah; so, or similarly, very often, especially in P, 7:16; 8:21; 12:4; 17:23; 21:1 (twice in verse); Exodus 16:24; 39:1, 5, 7; Numbers 3:16, 42 etc.; י דבר ׳כאשׁר Deuteronomy 1:21; 2:1; 6:3, 19 +? Deuteronomy.
b. answered, for increased emphasis, by כֵּן (compare כְּ 2d), Genesis 50:12 צִוָּם כאשׁר כן ויעשׂו, Exodus 7:10, 20; Genesis 18:5 (J) דברת כאשׁר חעשׂח כן, Exodus 10:10 (iron.), Amos 5:14 (do.); in opposed to order, Judges 1:7 לי שׁלם כן עשׂיתי, כאשׁר, Exodus 7:6 י צוה ׳כאשׁר עשׂו כן, compare 12:28, 50; 39:43; Numbers 5:4; Numbers 17:26; 36:10 (all P); with imperfect (frequently) 2:17 (P) יסעו כן יחנו כאשׁר; of degree = the more. . . the more, Exodus 1:12 יפרץ וכן ירבה כן אתו יענּו וכאשׁר, compare 17:11 (JE) ישׁר יריםו֗֗֗גבר כאשׁר ׳והיה according as he held up, etc., Israel prevailed; in an oath or solemn promise, Numbers 14:28 אעשׂה כן דברתם כאשׁר לא אם, Deuteronomy 28:63 (Jeremiah 31:28), 1 Kings 1:30; Isaiah 10:11; 14:24; 52:14f. (see כֵּן 2b).
d. often in similes (followed by imperfect of habit) Exodus 33:11 רעהו אל אישׁ ידבר כאשׁר, Numbers 11:12; Deuteronomy 1:44; Isaiah 9:2; 66:20 +, answered by כֵּן 31:4; 55:10; 66:22; Amos 3:12 +; a second verb is, in such cases, in the perfect with וְ consecutive (Dr§ 115) Deuteronomy 22:26; Isaiah 29:8 יחלםו֗֗֗הקיץ כאשׁר, 65:8; Amos 5:19.
2 with a casual force, in so far as, since (German demgemäss dass), Genesis 26:29 if thou doest us no harm נגענוך לא כאשׁר according as, in so far as, we have not touched thee; Numbers 27:14 פי מריתם כאשׁר inasmuch as ye have defied my mouth, Judges 6:27; 1 Samuel 28:18 (answered by כן על), 2 Kings 17:26; Micah 3:4.
3 with a temporal force, when, Genesis 18:33 and Y. went away כלה כאשׁר when he had finished, etc., 32:3; 32:32; 1 Samuel 8:6; 2 Samuel 12:21 +; answered by וַּ (Dr§ 127 β), 1 Samuel 6:6; 12:8; כאשׁר֗֗ ויהי and it came to pass, when . . . Genesis 12:11; 20:13; 24:22, 52; Exodus 32:19 + often; Genesis 43:14 שׁכלתי שׁכלתי כאשׁר when I am bereaved, I am bereaved ! an expression of resignation, so Esther 4:16 אבדתי אבדתי כאשׁר. Joshua 2:7 כאשׁר אחרי is a 'conflate' reading, omit either אחרי or כ. Of future time, Genesis 27:40; 40:14 לך ייטב כאשׁר, Hosea 7:12; Ecclesiastes 4:17; Ecclesiastes 5:3, and without a verb Isaiah 23:5 למצרים שׁמע כאשׁר. — Micah 3:3 כאשׁר is simply as that which, Job 29:25 as one who.
שֶׁ, also ( Genesis 6:3 [? see 4a], Judges 5:7 (twice in verse); Song of Solomon 1:7; Job 19:29 [?]) שָׁ שַּׁ , in שָׁאַתָּה Judges 6:17, and שְׁ in שְׁהוּא Ecclesiastes 2:22, שְׁהֵם 3:18 (elsewhere before guttural שֶׁ, as שֶׁאֲנִי Song of Solomon 1:6; Ecclesiastes 2:18, שֶׁאֵין Psalm 146:3, שֶׁהֵם Song of Solomon 6:5; Lamentations 4:9, שֶׁעַל Judges 7:12; 8:26, שֶׁרּאֹשִׁי Song of Solomon 5:2),
relative particle who, which, that, etc. (constantly in Late Hebrew; Aramaic of Nerab, Ldzb371, 445; Assyrian sha; Phoenician אש (regularly), also sometimes ש (Ldzb227f.): according to Ges Ew§ 181 b Olp. 439 Sta§ 176 e, abbreviated from אֲשֶׁר; more probably (Sperling [see אֲשֶׁר], Köii. 323 f.) an original demonstrative particle), synonym with אֲשֶׁר, but in usage limited to late Hebrew, and passages with north Palestinian colouring, namely Judges 5:7 (twice in verse) [אֲשֶׁר 5:27], 6:17; 7:12; 8:26; 2 Kings 6:11 (see 4c), Jonah 1:7, 12; 4:10 [אֲשֶׁר11t.], Psalm 122:3; 122:4; 123:2; 124:1; 124:2; 124:6; 129:6; 129:7; 133:2; 133:3; 135:2; 135:8; 135:10; 136:23; 137:8; 137:9; 144:15; 146:3; 146:5; Lamentations 2:15-16, 4:9; 5:18; Ezra 8:20; 1 Chronicles 5:20; 27:27; Canticles (uniformly, except in title Song of Solomon 1:1); Ecclesiastes (68 t.; אֲשֶׁא89t.); also (dubious) Genesis 6:3; 49:10 (ᵑ7 ᵑ6 ᵐ5 שֶׁלֹּה), Job 19:29; and in the proper name (q. v.) מִישָׁאֵל and מְתוּשָׁאֵל. — In usage, שֶּׁ is in the main parallel with אֲשֶׁר, namely 1 as
pronoun who, which, whom, Judges 7:12 הַיָּם שְׂפַת שֶׁעַל כַּהוֺל (compare חוֺל c), Psalm 122:3; 124:6 etc.; him whom, that which, etc., Song of Solomon 1:7; 3:1; 1 Chronicles 27:27; Ecclesiastes 1:11; 6:3 חַיָּיו יְמֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ וְרַב and much (verb) is that which his days amount to (Hi De and others), 6:10; שֶּׁ הוּא that which 1:9 (twice in verse); in the Genitive, שֶּׁ אַשְׁרֵי Psalm 137:8; 137:9; 146:5. — On מַהשֶּּֿׁ in Eccl = whatever, what, see מָה 1e b. 2 as a connecting link; = where (compare אֲשֶׁר p. 81, and 4b β), שֶּׁ מְקוֺם Ecclesiastes 1:7; 11:3 (compare אֲשֶׁר מְקוֺם Genesis 39:20 +: Ges§ 130c), whither Psalm 122:4 (֗֗֗ שֶׁשָּׁם), when Song of Solomon 8:8; Ecclesiastes 12:3 שֶּׁ בַּיּוֺם (compare ib.
4b a). 3as a
conjunction (compare אֲשֶׁר 8); — a. that, after רָאָה Ecclesiastes 2:13; 3:18, יָרַע 1:17; 2:14; 9:5; Job 19:19 (?), דִּבֶּר Ecclesiastes 2:15, אָמַר 8:14, אוֺת עָשָׂה Judges 6:17; as subject of sentence, Ecclesiastes 3:13; 5:15; also in the phrases, (a) what is ... that ? Song of Solomon 5:9 (usually כִּי; see מָךְ 1d b), שֶּׁ הָיָה מֶה how comes it that ... ? Ecclesiastes 7:10; (b) Song of Solomon 3:4 מֵהֶם שֶׁעָבַרְתּת כִּמְעַט hardly (was it) that (German kaum dass) I had passed, etc., Ecclesiastes 7:14 יִמְצָא שֶׁלּאֹ דִּדבְרַת עַל to the intent that ..., 5:15 שֶׁבֶּא כָּלעֻֿמַּת exactly as ..., 12:9 שֶׁ תֵר besides that, שֶּׁ עַד (ּ עַד Judges 5:7) until that Psalm 123:2; Song of Solomon 2:7, 17 + (see III. עַד II 1 a a and b; compare Late Hebrew Yoma 5:1), while 1:12 (ib. 2d); עָשָׂהשֶּׁ to make or cause that ..., Ecclesiastes 3:14 (compare Ezekiel 36:27). b. involving a reason (compare אֲשֶׁר 8c), because, since, Song of Solomon 1:6 (twice in verse); 5:2; Ecclesiastes 2:18 b. Hence שֵׁלָּמָה Song of Solomon 1:7 since why ? = lest (see מָה 4d b). 4 compounds: a. בְּשֶּׁ , i. q. בַּאֲשֶׁר c (p. 84a) in that, seeing that, Ecclesiastes 2:16; also (according to ᵑ6 ᵐ5 ᵑ0 Hu De) Genesis 6:3 בָשָׂר הוּא בְּשַׁגַּם because that he also is flesh; but see שָׁגַג. b. כּשֶּׁ , i. q. כַּאֲשֶׁר p. 455: — (a) according as Ecclesiastes 5:14; 12:7; (b) when (so often in Late Hebrew, as Ab 1:8 (3 t. in verse); 1:14) 9:12; 10:3. c. מִשֶּּׁ , i. q. מֵאֲשֶׁר a (p. 84:a), 2 Kings 6:12 מִשֶּׁלָּנוּ מִי who of those that are ours ? (but Klo KmpKau Benz מְגַלֵּנוּ who betrays us ? compare ᵐ5); Ecclesiastes 5:4 than that (compare מֵאֲשֶׁר 3:22), + 2:24 (read מִשֶּׁיּאֹכַל with Ew De, etc.; compare 3:22). d. שֶׁל, like אֲשֶׁרלְ (אֲשֶׁר 7b), a mark of the Genitive: thrice, adding slight emphasis to the suffix, Song of Solomon 1:6 = 8:12 שֶׁלִּי כַּרְמִי my vineyard (literally my vineyard, which is mine), 3:7 שֶׁלִּשְׁלֹמֹה מִטָּתוֺ (so often in Late Hebrew, but without any special emphasis, as Aboth 1:12 שׁלאֿהרן מתלמידיווּ הֲוֵי be of Aaron's disciples, 2:1 שֶׁלמִֿצְוֺת שְׂכָרָן, 2:2; 3:2 שׁלמֿלכות בשׁלומהּ מתפלל הֲוֵי; compare in Syriac, as Luke 6:42 my words, Nö§ 225). And with בְּשֶׁל בְּ, literally through that which belongs to or concerns, pleonastic for on account of (a late, unidiomatic translation of Aramaic בְּרִיל, from דִּי בְּ,, and לְ, as in Onk Genesis 12:13 בדילי on my account, 30:27; 39:5 מָא בְּדִיל יוֺסֵף, בְּדִיל on account of what ? Judges 8:1; 2 Samuel 9:1; 1 Kings 11:12, 39, etc.), Jonah 1:7 בְּשֶׁלְּמִי on account of whom ? ("" 1:8 לְמִי בַּאֲשֶׁר; probably a gloss), 1:12 בְּשֶׁלִּי an account of me (בְּדִילִי מַן, בְּדִיל ᵑ7); Ecclesiastes 8:17 לְבַקֵּשׁ הָאָדָם יַעֲמֹל אֲשֶׁר בְּשֶׁל on account of (the fact) that (= seeing that) man labours, etc. (unidiomatic translation of Aramaic דְּ בְּדִיל because that, as Genesis 6:3 בִּסְרָא דְּאִינוּן בְּדִיל, 39:9 אִיתְּתֵיהּ דְּאַתְּ בְּרִיל [for Hebrew אִשְׁתּוֺ אַתְּ בַּאֲשֶׁר]; Palmyrene די בדיל Ldzb233, — in Tariff 1:4 (CookeN. Semitic Inscr. 320) = ἐπειδή).
[שֹׁא] see [ שׁוֺא].