A primitive root; to cover (specifically with bitumen); figuratively, to expiate or condone, to placate or cancel -- appease, make (an atonement, cleanse, disannul, forgive, be merciful, pacify, pardon, purge (away), put off, (make) reconcile(-liation).
כִּמֶּר verb Pi`el etc.
denominative cover over (figurative), pacify, make propitiation; —
Pi`el Perfect כִּמֶּר Exodus 30:10 31t.; 2 masculine singular suffix כִּמַּרְתָּ֑הוּ Ezekiel 43:20; 3masculine plural יְכַמְּרוּ 43:26; 2masculine plural כִּמַּרְתֶּם 45:20; Imperfect יְכַמֵּר Exodus 30:10 10t.; יְכַמֶּרֿ Leviticus 7:7; Numbers 5:8; suffix יְכַמְּרֶנָּה Proverbs 16:14; 1singular אֲכַמֵּר 2 Samuel 21:3; אֲכַמְּרָה Genesis 32:21; Exodus 32:30, etc.; Imperative כַּמֵּר Deuteronomy 21:8 4t.; Infinitive כַּמֵּר Exodus 30:15 28t.; suffixes כַּמְּרִי Ezekiel 16:63; כַּמֶּרְךָ Exodus 29:36; כַּמְּרָהּ Isaiah 47:11; —
1 cover over, pacify, propitiate; בַּמִּנְחָה פָנָיו אֲכַמָּרָה Genesis 32:21 let me cover his face by the present (so that he does not see the offence, i.e. pacify, him; E; RSOTJC, 2d ed., 381 'wipe clean the face,' blackened by displeasure, as the Arabs say 'whiten the face'); הֹוָה עָלַיִךְ כַּמְּרָהּוְתִמֹּל תוּכְלִי לֹא Isaiah 47:11 and disaster will fall upon thee, thou wilt not be able to propitiate it (by payment of a כֹּפֶר, see 43:3); pacify the wrath of a king Proverbs 16:14 (e.g. by a gift).
2 cover over, atone for sin, without sacrifice :
a. man as subject, אֲכַמֵּר בַּמָּה 2 Samuel 21:3, with what shall I cover over (namely, the bloodguiltiness of the house of Saul, says David The answer is by a death penalty of seven sons of the guilty house); חטאתכםבְּעַד Exodus 32:30 on behalf of your sins (J E; Moses, by intercession); with על of persons Numbers 17:11; 17:12 (P; by incense), 25:13 (P when Phinehas slays the ringleaders).
b. with God as subject, with accusative of person, cover, i.e. treat as covered, view propitiously, Yahweh's land Deuteronomy 32:43 (song); לְ person 21:8 (bloodguiltiness flows away in the stream), Ezekiel 16:63; בְּעַד of person 2 Chronicles 30:18; with accusative of the sin Psalm 65:4; 78:38, probably also Daniel 9:24 ׅ "" חטאתח֯תם (; עַל of sin, Psalm 79:9; Jeremiah 18:23 ׅ "" מחה (. It is conceived that God in his sovereignty may himself provide an atonement or covering for men and their sins which could not be provided by men.
3 cover over, atone for sin and persons by legal rites, in the codes of H, P, and Ezekiel: absolute ׳וכ הַכֹּהֵן and the priest shall make atonement Leviticus 16:32;
a. with accusative of sacred places (by the great sin-offering of the day of atonement), Leviticus 16:20, 33 (twice in verse); also Ezekiel 43:20, 26; 45:20 (by the blood of the sin-offering "" טִהַר חִטֵּא,).
b. usually c. עַל (I) of things, e.g. of the altar to which the blood of the sin-offering was applied Exodus 29:36-37, 30:10; Leviticus 8:15 ׅ "" קִדַּשׁ (, 16:18; and specifically the horns of the altar Exodus 30:10; the holy place of the tabernacle Leviticus 16:16 (by the great sin-offering, because of ׅ מִן ( the uncleannesses of thechildren of Israel and because of their transgressions); for the leprous house by ceremony of purification 14:53 ׅ "" טִהַר (; for the goat לעזאזל 16:10 (which was presented before Yahweh to consecrate him for the bearing away of the sins of the people). (2) of persons, עלֿ נפשׁתיכם, for your persons, yourselves, e.g. by the payment of atonement-money הַכִּמֻּרִים כֶּסֶף at the census Exodus 30:15-16, by the קרבן of the spoils Numbers 31:50; by the blood upon the altar Leviticus 17:11; in the ritual עָלָיו עֲלֵיהֶם, by ministry of priest through the blood of the sin-offering 4:20, 31; 8:34; 10:17; 12:7-8, 14:19, 31; 16:30, 33; 23:28; Numbers 8:12, 21; 15:25, 28 (twice in verse); 28:22, 30; 29:5; 2 Chronicles 29:24; Nehemiah 10:34; of the trespass-offering Leviticus 5:16, 18; Leviticus 5:26; 7:7; 14:21; 19:22; Numbers 5:8; the whole burnt-offering Leviticus 1:4; 14:20; 16:24; by the oil used in purifying a leper 14:18, 29; by the תרומה Ezekiel 45:15; by the priestly ministry in General 1 Chronicles 6:34; by the substitution of the Levites for the firstborn Numbers 8:19. Underlying all these offerings there is the conception that the persons offering are covered by that which is regarded as sufficient and satisfactory by Yahweh. (The purpose of the covering is stated Leviticus 16:30 י לִפְנֵי חַטּאֹתֵיכֶם מִכֹּל אֶתְכֶם לְטַהֵר ׳עֲלֵיכֶם תִּטְהָ֑רוּיְכַמֵּר = shall atonement be made for you to cleanse you, from all your sins shall ye be clean before Yahweh, and Numbers 8:21 לְטַהֲרָם עֲלֵיהֶם וַיְכַמֵּר and (Aaron) made atonement for them to cleanse them.)
c. the need of the atonement is expressed by מִן: **others understand מִן as = away from; compare DiLeviticus 4:26, RiSühne 50 f. מֵחטאתו because of his sin 4:26; 5:6, 10; 16:34; מטמאתו 14:19; 16:16; מזוב 15:15, 30; חָטָא מֵאֲשֶׁר Numbers 6:11; also עַלחַֿטָּאתוֺ עַל on account of his sin Leviticus 4:35; 5:13; 19:22; עלשֿׁגגתוֺ 5:18.
d. with בְּ instrumental בְּאֵיל Leviticus 5:16; 19:22; Numbers 5:8; with a trespass-offering Leviticus 7:7; יְכַמֵּר בַּנֶּפֶשׁ הוּא כִּיהּהַדָּם 17:11 for it is the blood with the living being that covers over (H, see נפשׁ
Pu`al Perfect כֻּמַּר Exodus 29:33; Isaiah 28:18 (but read תֻּפַר, — √ I. פרר, — so ᵑ7. Hu We Che SS and others see BrMP 209); Imperfect יְכֻמַּר Numbers 35:33 3t.; 3 feminine singular תְּכֻמָּ֑ר Isaiah 6:7 be covered over, atoned for.
1 apart from the ritual, תכפר חטאתך Isaiah 6:7 thy sin shall be covered over ( "" עֲוֺנֶךָ וְסָר; by the touch of the live coal from the altar); הַזֶּה הֶעָוֺן לָכֶםאִםיְֿכֻמַּר 22:14 surely this iniquity shall not be covered over; with בְּ instrumental עון יכפר בזאת 27:9 by this shall the iniquity of Jacob be covered over ("" חטאתו הָסר namely by the destruction of idolatrous objects); יכפר יאמת עוןבחסד Proverbs 16:6 by mercy and fidelity iniquity is covered over.
2 with לְ for whom, לדם יכפר לא לארץ Numbers 35:33 for the land atonement cannot be made, in view of the blood shed in it, except by the blood of the shedder of blood; in the ritual of P, with בְּ instrumental בָּהֶם כֻּמַּר אֲשֶׁר Exodus 29:33 wherewith atonement was made (ram of consecration).
Hithpa`el Imperfect יִתְכַּמֵּר 1 Samuel 3:14; with בְּ instrumental אִםֿ וּבְמִנְחָה בְּזֶבַח בֵּיתעֵֿלִי עֲוֺן יִתְכַּמֵּר the iniquity of the house of Eli shall not be covered by peace offering or minchah (in other words there was no atonement for it; compare Punic Isaiah 22:14).
Niph`al Perfect הַדָּם לָהֶם וְנִכַּמֵּר Deuteronomy 21:8 and the blood shall be covered for them.
II. [כָּפַר] verb denominative (from II. כֹּפֶר) — Perfect2masculine singular בַּכֹּפֶד וְכָֽפַרְתָּ֫ Genesis 6:14 and thou shalt pitch it with pitch (P).
III. כפר (√ of following).