see GREEK aner
see GREEK optanomai
1. universally, with reference to the genus or nature, without distinction of sex, a human being, whether male or female: John 16:21. And in this sense a. with the article, generically, so as to include all human individuals: Matthew 4:4 (ἐπ' ἄρτῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος); Matthew 12:35 (ὁ ἀγαθός ἄνθρωπος every good person); Matthew 15:11, 18; Mark 2:27; Mark 7:15, 18, 20; Luke 4:4; John 2:25 (Winer's Grammar, § 18, 8); John 7:51; Romans 7:1, etc.
b. so that a man is distinguished from beings of a different race or order; α. from animals, plants, etc.: Luke 5:10; Matthew 4:19; Matthew 12:12; 2 Peter 2:16; Revelation 9:4, 7, 10, 15, 18; Revelation 11:13, etc. (beta). from God, from Christ as divine, and from angels: Matthew 10:32; Matthew 19:6; Mark 10:9; Luke 2:15 (T WH omit; L Tr brackets) (opposed to angels); John 10:33; Acts 10:26; Acts 14:11; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; Galatians 1:10, 12; 1 Corinthians 3:21; 1 Corinthians 7:23; Philippians 2:7, 7 (8); 1 Timothy 2:5; Hebrews 8:2; Hebrews 13:6; 1 Peter 2:4, etc.
c. with the added notion of weakness, by which man is led into mistake or prompted to sin: οὐκ ἄνθρωποι; (R G σαρκικοί) ἐστε; 1 Corinthians 3:4; σοφία ἀνθρώπων, 1 Corinthians 2:5; ἀνθρώπων ἐπιθυμίαι, 1 Peter 4:2; κατά ἄνθρωπον περιπατεῖτε ye conduct yourselves as men, 1 Corinthians 3:3; λαλεῖν or λέγειν κατά ἄνθρωπον, to speak according to human modes of thinking, 1 Corinthians 9:8; Romans 3:5; κατά ἄνθρωπον λέγω, I speak as a man to whom analogies from human affairs present themselves, while I illustrate divine things by an example drawn from ordinary human life, Galatians 3:15; κατά ἄνθρωπον θηριομάχειν, as man is accustomed to fight, urged on by the desire of gain, honor and other earthly advantages, 1 Corinthians 15:32: οὐκ ἐστι κατά ἄνθρωπον is not accommodated to the opinions and desires of men, Galatians 1:11; (for examples of κατά ἄνθρωπον in secular authors see Wetstein on Rom. as above); with the accessory notion of malignity: προσέχετε ἀπό τῶν ἀνθρώπων, Matthew 10:17; εἰς χεῖρας ἀνθρώπων, Matthew 17:22; Luke 9:44.
d. with the adjunct notion of contempt (as sometimes in Greek writings): John 5:12; the address ὦ ἄνθρωπε, or ἄνθρωπε, is one either of contempt and disdainful pity, Romans 9:20 (Plato, Gorgias, p. 452 b. σύ δέ ... τίς εἰ, ὦ ἄνθρωπε), or of gentle rebuke, Luke 22:58, 60. The word serves to suggest commiseration: ἴδε (T Tr WH ἰδού) ὁ ἄνθρωπος behold the man in question, maltreated, defenseless, John 19:5.
e. with a reference to the twofold nature of man. ὁ ἔσω and ὁ ἔξω ἄνθρωπος, soul and body: Romans 7:22; Ephesians 3:16; 2 Corinthians 4:16, (Plato, rep. 9, 589 a. ὁ ἐντός ἄνθρωπος; Plotinus Enn. 5, 1, 10 ὁ εἴσω ἄνθρωπος; cf. Fritzsche on Romans, vol. ii., 61f. (Meyer on Romans, the passage cited; Ellicott on Ephesians, the passage cited)); ὁ κρυπτός τῆς καριδας ἀνθρ. 1 Peter 3:4.
f. with a reference to the twofold moral condition of man, ὁ παλαιός (the corrupt) and ὁ καινός (ὁ νέος) ἄνθρωπος (the truly Christian man, conformed to the nature of God): Romans 6:6; Ephesians 2:15; Ephesians 4:22, 24; Colossians 3:9f.
g. with a reference to the sex, (contextually) a male: John 7:22f.
2. indefinitely, without the article, ἄνθρωπος, a. someone, a (certain) man, when who he is either is not known or is not important: equivalent to τίς, Matthew 17:14; Matthew 21:28; Matthew 22:11; Mark 12:1; Mark 14:13; Luke 5:18; Luke 13:19, etc. with the addition of τίς, Matthew 18:12; Luke 10:30; Luke 14:2, 16; Luke 15:11; Luke 16:1, 19; John 5:5. in address, where the speaker either cannot or will not give the name, Luke 5:20; or where the writer addresses any and every reader, Romans 2:1, 3.
b. where what is said holds of every man, so that ἄνθρωπος is equivalent to the German indefinite man, one: Romans 3:28; 1 Corinthians 4:1; 1 Corinthians 7:1; 1 Corinthians 11:28; Galatians 2:16. So also where opposed to domesties, Matthew 10:36; to a wife, Matthew 19:10; to a father, Matthew 10:35; to the master of a household, Luke 12:36f — in which passages many, confounding sense and signification, incorrectly say that the word ἄνθρωπος signifies father of a family, husband, son, servant.
3. in the plural οἱ ἄνθρωποι is sometimes (the) people, German dieLeute: Matthew 5:13, 16; Matthew 6:5, 18; Matthew 8:27; Matthew 16:13; Luke 11:44; Mark 8:24, 27; John 4:28; οὐδείς ἀνθρώπων (nemohominum) no one, Mark 11:2; 1 Timothy 6:16.
4. It is joined a. to another substantive — a quasi-predicate of office, or employment, or characteristic — the idea of the predicate predominating (Winer's Grammar, § 59, 1): ἄνθρωπος ἔμπορος a merchant (-man), Matthew 13:45 (WH text omits ἀνθρώπῳ); οἰκοδεσπότης, Matthew 13:52; Matthew 20:1; Matthew 21:33; βασιλεύς, Matthew 18:23; Matthew 20:2; φάγος, Matthew 11:19. (So in Hebrew סָרִיס אִישׁ a eunuch, Jeremiah 38:7f, כֹּהֵן אִישׁ a priest, Leviticus 21:9; also in Greek writings: ἄνθρωπος ὁδίτης, Homer, Iliad 16, 263, elsewhere; cf. Matthiae, § 430, 6; (Krüger § 57, 1, 1); but in Attic this combination generally has a contemptuous force; cf. Bernhardy (1829), p. 48; in Latinhomogladiator, Cicero, epistles ad diversos 12, 22, 1).
5. ὁ ἄνθρωπος, with the article, the particular man under consideration, who he is being plain from the context: Matthew 12:13; Matthew 26:72; Mark 3:5; Luke 23:6; John 4:50. οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Luke 14:30; John 9:16, 24 (L Tr marginal reading WH); 6. Phrases: ὁ ἄνθρωπος τῆς ἁμαρτίας (or with T Tr text WH text, τῆς ἀνομίας), 2 Thessalonians 2:3, see ἁμαρτία, 1, p. 30f ἄνθρωπος τοῦ Θεοῦ a man devoted to the service of God, God's minister: 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 3:17 (of the evangelists, the associates of the apostles); 2 Peter 1:21 (of prophets, like אֱלֹהִים אִישׁ often in the O. T.; cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus i., p. 85). For ὁ υἱός τοῦ ἀνθρώπου and υἱοί τῶν ἀνθρώπων, see under υἱός.
6. Phrases: ὁ ἄνθρωπος τῆς ἁμαρτίας (or with T Tr text WH text, τῆς ἀνομίας), 2 Thessalonians 2:3, see ἁμαρτία, 1, p. 30f ἄνθρωπος τοῦ Θεοῦ a man devoted to the service of God, God's minister: 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 3:17 (of the evangelists, the associates of the apostles); 2 Peter 1:21 (of prophets, like אֱלֹהִים אִישׁ often in the O. T.; cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus i., p. 85). For ὁ υἱός τοῦ ἀνθρώπου and υἱοί τῶν ἀνθρώπων, see under υἱός.