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Song of Solomon
Titus 3 COMMENTARY (Pulpit)
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Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good work,
, A.V. and T.R.;
to be obedient
to obey magistrates
Put them in mind
2 Timothy 2:14
To rulers, to authorities.
Many uncials, which the R.T. follows, omit the
, but it seems necessary to the sense. The change from "principalities and powers" to" rulers" and "authorities" does not seem desirable.
is a favorite juxtaposition el' St. Paul's (
1 Corinthians 15:24
Colossians 2:10, 15
). It occurs also in
1 Peter 3:22
. In all the above examples the words, it is true, apply to the angelic hosts, but the words are elsewhere applied separately to human government, and in
, they are applied together to the authority of the Roman governor.
To be obedient
); only here and in
Acts 5:29, 32
. It follows here its classical use, "to obey a superior," well expressed in the Authorized Version "to obey magistrates." The simple "
be obedient" of the Revised Version does not express the sense.
To be ready unto every good work.
St. Paul is still speaking with especial reference to magistrates and the civil power. Christians were to show themselves good citizens, always ready for any duty to which they were called. Christianity was not to be an excuse for shirking duties, or refusing obedience where it was due. The only limit is expressed by the word "good." They were to give tribute to whom tribute was due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor; but, if ordered to do evil, then they must resist, and obey God rather than man (
). (See the similar limitation in
, note, and compare, for the whole verse, the very similar passage,
To speak evil of no man, to be no brawlers,
gentle, shewing all meekness unto all men.
to be contentious
to be no brawlers
for unto, A.V.
To speak evil of no man
). Probably especially pointed in the first place at a natural tendency of oppressed Christians to speak evil of their rulers (
2 Peter 2:10
), but extended into a general precept which might be especially needful for the rough and turbulent Cretans.
Not to be contentious
1 Timothy 3:3
To be gentle
); coupled, as here, with
1 Timothy 3:3
); a word of frequent occurrence in St. Paul's vocabulary (
, etc.; see above,
); another Pauline word (
1 Corinthians 4:21
2 Corinthians 10:1
1 Timothy 6:11
2 Timothy 2:25
). The precept is given its widest extension by the double addition of "all" and "to all men." The roughness, or want of courtesy, of others is no excuse for the want of meekness in those who are the disciples of him who was meek and lowly in heart (
). All men, whatever their station, the highest or the lowest, are to receive meek and gentle treatment from the Christian.
For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful,
hating one another.
hating for and hating
); a Pauline word (
Galatians 3:1, 3
), found also in
1 Timothy 6:9
); of frequent use in classical Greek.
it stands, as here, absolutely, meaning disobedient to God and his Law.
); led astray, made to wander from the path of troth and right, either by false systems of religion, or by our own evil affections and appetites (see
2 Timothy 2:13
1 Peter 2:25
2 Peter 2:15
; slaves to (
2 Peter 2:19
); not always in a bad sense, as here, though usually so (see
1 Thessalonians 2:17
); always in a bad sense in the New Testament (
James 4:1, 3
2 Peter 2:13
). Living (
1 Timothy 2:2
, where it is followed by
, which is here understood.
τὸν βίον αἰῶνα χρόνον σάββατον
. etc., are common phrases both in the LXX. and in classical Greek for
one's life, time, age, etc. But it is only found in the New Testament here and in
1 Timothy 2:2
). This word is sometimes used of
1 Corinthians 5:8
; and probably
; and even of
in things, as
. But it frequently in the New Testament denotes
, the desire to do harm to others, as
); almost always found in St. Paul's enumeration of sins (
1 Timothy 6:4
); only here in the New Testament, not found in the LXX. (though the verb
occurs once or twice in the Maccabees), but used in good classical Greek. The above is a sad but too true picture of human life without the sweetening influences of God's Holy Spirit.
But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared,
the kindness of God our Savior, and his love toward man
the kindness and love of God our Savior toward man
), used by St. Paul only in the New Testament, and by him frequently in the sense of "kindness," whether of God (as
) or of man (as
2 Corinthians 6:6
, where it has the wider sense of "good" or "right," it is the phrase of the LXX., who use
for the Hebrew
. In like manner,
is frequently used in the sense of "kind" (
1 Peter 2:3
). This is exactly analogous to the use of
, in the limited sense of "malicious," "malice" (see preceding note to ver. 3).
Love toward man
); only here and
in the New Testament. It occurs repeatedly in the Books of the Maccabees, and is common in good classical Greek.
God our Savior
1 Timothy 1:1
1 Timothy 2:3
Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;
- Done in
i.e. in consequence of.
God's kindness and love to man did not spring from man's good work as the preceding and producing conditions (comp.
, and the notes of Bishops Ellicott and Lightfoot). Done in righteousness(
); the particular description of the works wrought in a sphere or element of righteousness (Alford and Ellicott).
Which we did ourselves
; emphasizing that they were our good works, done by us in a state of righteousness. All this, as the cause of our
, the apostle emphatically denies. -Not, etc.,
but according to his mercy he saved us
. The predisposing cause, the rule and measure of our salvation, was God's mercy and grace, originating and completing that salvation.
Through the washing of regeneration
διὰ λουτροῦ παλλιγενεσίας
). Here we have the means
which God's mercy saves us. The
of regeneration (
found elsewhere in the New Testament only in
, in exactly the same connection - is the
in which the washing takes place. The nature or quality of this bath is described by the words, "of regeneration" (
); elsewhere in the New Testament only in
, where it seems rather to mean the great restoration of humanity at the second advent. The word is used by Cicero of his restoration to political power, by Josephus of the restoration of the Jews under Zerubbabel, and by several Greek authors; and the LXX. of
have the phrase,
ἕως πάλιν γένωμαι
, but in what sense is not quite clear,
, therefore, very fifty describes the new birth in holy baptism, when the believer is put into possession of a new spiritual life, a new nature, and a new inheritance of glory. And the laver of baptism is called "the laver of regeneration," because it is the ordained means by or through which regeneration is obtained.
And renewing of the Holy Ghost
It is doubtful whether the genitive
. Bengel, followed by Alford, takes the former, "per lavacrum et renovationem;" the Vulgate (
lavacrum regenerationis et renova-tionis Spiritus Sancti
), the latter, followed by Huther, Bishop Ellicott, and others. It is difficult to hit upon any conclusive argument for one side or the other. But it is against the latter construction that it gives such a very long rambling sentence dependent upon
of regeneration and of the renewing of the Holy Ghost, which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Savior." And it is in favor of the former that the "laver of regeneration" and "the renewing of the Holy Ghost" seem to describe very clearly the two parts of the sacrament, the outward visible sign and the inward spiritual grace; the birth of water and of the Holy Ghost. So that Bengel's rendering seems on the whole to be preferred.
); only here and
, and not at all in the LXX. or in classical Greek. But the verb
is found in
2 Corinthians 4:16
. The same idea is in the
, the "new creature" of
2 Corinthians 5:17
, and the
, and the
, and in the contrast between the "old man" (the
"the new man" (the
. This renewal is the work of the Holy Ghost in the new birth, when men are "born again" of the Spirit (
). Alford is wrong in denying its application here to the first gift of the new life. It is evidently parallel with the
. The connection of baptism with the effusion of the Holy Spirit is fully set forth in
. (see especially ver. 38; comp.
Matthew 3:16, 17
Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour;
- Poured out upon us richly
shed on us abundantly
); viz. the Holy Ghost. It is in the genitive (instead of the accusative
, which is another reading), by what [he grammarians call
); the same word as is applied to the Holy Ghost in
Acts 2:17, 18, 33
, and in the LXX. of
Joel 2:28, 29
1 Timothy 6:17
2 Peter 1:11
(compare the use of
Through Jesus Christ.
It is our baptism into Christ which entitles us to receive the Holy Spirit, which we have only in virtue of our union with him. The Spirit flows from the Head to the members. In
Acts 2:33, 34
Christ is said to have received the promise of the Holy Spirit from the Father, and to have poured it forth upon the Church.
That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life.
Being justified by his grace
; showing very clearly that righteousness in man did not precede and cause the saving mercy of God, but that mercy went before and provided the justification which is altogether of grace, and which issues in the possession of eternal life.
Heirs according to the hope of eternal life.
This seems to be the right rendering rather than that in the margin,
heirs, according to hope, of eternal life
, making "
life" depend upon "heirs." The passage in
hope of eternal life," is a very strong reason for taking the same construction here. The answer in the Church Catechism, "
I was made a member of Christ, a child of God, and an
of the kingdom of heaven," follows very closely St. Paul's teaching in the text (see
Romans 4:13, 14
Galatians 3:29, 4
a faithful saying, and these things I will that thou affirm constantly, that they which have believed in God might be careful to maintain good works. These things are good and profitable unto men.
- Faithful is the saying
this is a faithful saying
concerning these things
to the end that
, A.V.; full stop after
, and colon after
Faithful is the saying
1 Timothy 1:15
(where see note). Here the faithful saying can only be the following maxim: "That they which have believed in God may be careful to maintain good works;" the words, "These things I will that thou affirm confidently," being interpolated to give yet more weight to it.
Concerning these things
with respect to the things or truths which are the subject of the faithful saying.
I will that thou affirm confidently
1 Timothy 1:7
. "Never be weary of dwelling on these important truths, and asserting them with authority. For such doctrine is really good and profitable for those whom you are commissioned to teach. But leave alone the foolish and unprofitable controversies."
To the end that
). It is not necessary to give to
the meaning "
the end that," in such a sentence as this (see note on Titus 2:12). After words of
, frequently, has simply the force of "that." So here, "lay it down as a rule that they which have believed God must be careful to maintain good works." If the sentence had run on without interruption, it would have been
πιστὸς ὁ λόγος
. But the interposition of the
, with the idea of commanding obedience, has caused the use of
οἱ πεπιστευκότες Θεῷ
). The meaning is not the same as
, "to believe in," or "on," but "to believe" (as
Romans 4:3, 17
1 John 5:10
, where the context shows that it is the act of believing God's promise that is meant). And so here, the
refers to the promises implied in the preceding reference to the
May be careful (
); only here in the New Testament, but common in the LXX. and in classical Greek. The word means "to give thought" about a thing, "to be careful" or "anxious" about it.
); usually in the sense of "presiding over" or "ruling" (as
1 Thessalonians 5:12
1 Timothy 3:4, 5, 12
1 Timothy 5:17
). Here, alter the analogy of the classical use,
, to "undertake," to "carry on," or the like, fairly expressed by to "maintain." The idea does not seem to be "to stand at the head of," or "to be foremost in."
practical godliness of all kinds (see ver. 14).
These things are good
, etc. If the reading of the T.R.,
τὰ καλὰ κ.τ.λ.
, is retained, the rendering ought to be, "These
are the things that are
good and profitable unto men
, not foolish questions, etc., they are unprofitable." But the R.T. omits the
. With regard to the interpretation above given of ver. 8, it must be admitted that it is very doubtful. But the great difficulty of the other way of rendering it, as most commentators do, is that it is impossible to say which part of what precedes is "the faithful saying" alluded to; and that the "care to maintain good works" is not that which naturally springs from it; whereas the reiteration in ver. 8 implies that "good works" is the special subject of "the faithful saying."
But avoid foolish questions, and genealogies, and contentions, and strivings about the law; for they are unprofitable and vain.
2 Timothy 2:16
2 Timothy 2:23
1 Timothy 1:4
. Strifes (
1 Timothy 6:4
Fightings about the Law
); such as St. Paul alludes to in
1 Timothy 1
, and are probably included in the
1 Timothy 6:4
); only here and
; but it is found in the LXX. and other Greek Versions, and in classical Greek (compare, for the sense,
2 Timothy 2:14
); compare the use of
, "vain talkers" (
"vain talking" (
1 Timothy 1:6
). The whole picture is unmistakably one of the perverse Jewish mind.
A man that is an heretick after the first and second admonition reject;
, A.V.; a for
); only here in the New Testament, not found in the LXX., but used in classical Greek for "
able to choose. The use of it here by St. Paul is drawn from the use of
for "a sect" (
Acts 24:5, 14
1 Corinthians 11:19
2 Peter 2:1
), or the doctrines taught by a sect. The
is one who forsakes the truth held by the Church, and
some doctrine of his own devising (
). The tendency of such departures from the doctrine of the Church to assume more and more of a deadly character, and to depart wider and wider from the truth, gave to the name of heretic a darker shade of condemnation in the mouth of Church writers as time advanced. But even in apostolic times some denied the resurrection (
2 Timothy 2:11, 12
); others denied the Lord that bought them (
2 Peter 2:1
); and there were some who were of the synagogue of Satan (
); so that already an heretical man, drawing away disciples after him, was a great blot in the Church.
1 Corinthians 10:11
After a first and second admonition refuse
1 Timothy 4:7
1 Timothy 5:11
. It does not clearly appear what is intended by this term In
1 Timothy 5:11
it meant refusing admission into the college of Church widows. If these had been persons seeking admission into the Church, or ordination, it would mean "refuse them." Vitringa (Huther) thinks it means "excommunication." Beza, Ellicott, Huther, Alford, etc., render it "shun," "let alone," "cease to admonish," and the like.
Knowing that he that is such is subverted, and sinneth, being condemned of himself.
- Such a one
be that is such
condemned of himself
); only here in the New Testament, but common in the LXX., and found in classical Greek in a material sense, "to turn inside out," "to root up," and the like. Here it means the complete pervert-ion of the man's Christian character, so as to leave no hope of his amendment. But this is not to be presumed till a first and second admonition have been given in vain.
); only here in the New Testament, not found in the LXX. nor in classical Greek. It means what Cicero (quoted by Schleusner) says of C. Fabricius, that he was
suo judicio condemnatus
, condemned by his own judgment, which, he says, is a heavier condemnation than even that of the law and of the judges ('Pro Cluentio,' 21, at the end). Fabricius was self-condemned because he had left the court in confusion at a critical part of his trial. So the heretics were self-condemned by the very fact that they continued to head the schism after repeated admonitions.
When I shall send Artemas unto thee, or Tychicus, be diligent to come unto me to Nicopolis: for I have determined there to winter.
- Give diligence
there I have determined
I have determined there
When I shall send Artemas
, etc. The action of St. Paul in sending Artemas or Tychicus to take the place of Titus in Crete is exactly the same as he pursued with regard to Ephesus, whither he sent Tychicus to take Timothy's place (
2 Timothy 4:11, 12
). He would not leave the presbyters in either place without the direction and superintendence of one having his delegated apostolic authority. This led to the final placing of a resident bishop in the Churches, such as we find in the second century. We may conclude that Artemas (otherwise unknown) was the person eventually sent to Crete, as
) we know went to Ephesus (
2 Timothy 4:12
). We have also an important note of time in this expression, showing clearly that this Epistle was written before the Second Epistle to Timothy (as it probably also was before 1 Timothy) - an inference abundantly corroborated by
2 Timothy 4:10
, by which it appears that Titus had then actually joined St. Paul, either at Nicopolis or elsewhere, and had started off again to Dalmatia.
2 Timothy 2:15
, note; 2 Timothy 4:9, 21.
, in Epirus. The most obvious reason for St. Paul's wintering at Nicopolis is that it was near Apollonia, the harbor opposite Brindisium, which would be his way to Rome, and also well situated for the missionary work in Dalmatia, which we learn from
2 Timothy 4:10
was in hand. Nicopolis (the city of victory) was built by Augustus Caesar to commemorate the great naval victory at Actium over Antony. It is now a complete ruin, uninhabited except by a few shepherds, but with vast remains of broken columns, baths, theatres, etc. (Lewin, vol. 2. p. 253).
1 Corinthians 16:6
. (On the question whether the winter here referred to is the same winter as that mentioned in
2 Timothy 4:21
, see Introduction.)
Bring Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their journey diligently, that nothing be wanting unto them.
- Set forward
); the technical expression both in the New Testament and the LXX., and also in classical Greek, for helping a person forward on their journey by supplying them with money food, letters of recommendation, escort, or whatever else they might require (see
1 Corinthians 16:6
2 Corinthians 1:16
3 John 1:6
Zenas the lawyer
. He is utterly unknown. His name is short for
, but whether he was "a Jewish scribe or Roman legist" can hardly be decided. But his companionship with Apollos, and the frequent application of the term
in the New Testament to the Jewish scribes and lawyers (
Luke 11:45, 48, 52
), makes it most probable that he was a Jewish lawyer.
; the well-known and eminent Alexandrian Jew, who was instructed in the gospel by Aquila and Priscilla at Ephesus, and became a favorite teacher at Corinth (
1 Corinthians 1:12
, and the following chapters, and Acts 16:12). It is a probable conjecture of Lewin's that Apollos was the bearer of this letter, written at Corinth, and was on his way to Alexandria, his native place, taking Crete on the way.
And let ours also learn to maintain good works for necessary uses, that they be not unfruitful.
Our people also.
The natural inference is that Titus had some fund at his disposal with which he was to help the travelers, but that St. Paul wished the Cretan Christians to contribute also. But it may also mean, as Luther suggests, "Let our Christians learn to do what Jews do, and even heathens too, viz. provide for the real wants of their own."
To maintain good works
(ver. 8, note)
for necessary uses
εἰς τὰς ἀναγκαίας χρείας
); such as the wants of the missionaries (comp. 3
; see also
, etc.). The phrase means "
necessities," the "indispensable wants." In classical Greek
are "the necessaries of life."
That they be not unfruitful
2 Peter 1:8
Colossians 1:6, 10
All that are with me salute thee. Greet them that love us in the faith. Grace
with you all. Amen.
That love us in faith has no sense.
"The faith" is right (see
1 Timothy 1:2
Grace be with you all.
So, with slight varieties, end St. Paul's other Epistles. The T.R. has
, as have most of the other Epistles.
Courtesy of Open Bible
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