Titus 2 COMMENTARY (Pulpit)

Titus 2
Pulpit Commentary
But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine:
Verse 1. - Befit for become, A.V.; the sound for sound, A.V. But speak thou, etc. The apostle now brings out, in full couldst with the vain talk of the heretical teachers, the solid, sober teaching of a true man of God, in harmony with the sound doctrine of the gospel of Christ. The sound doctrine (τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ διδασκαλία); as in 1 Timothy 1:10 (where see note). In 1 Timothy 6:1 διδασκαλία by itself means "the Christian faith," "the doctrine of the gospel." The varying phrases, ἡ καλὴ διδασκαλία, ἡ κατ εὐσεβείαν διδασκαλία, and ἡ ὑγιαινοῦσα διδασκαλία, all mean the same thing, with varying descriptive qualifications (see ver. 10). The article "the" is not required.
That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in charity, in patience.
Verse 2. - Aged for the aged, A.V.; temperate for sober, A.V.; sober-minded for temperate, A.V.; love for charity, A.V. Temperate (νηφάλιος); as 1 Timothy 3:2, (where see note). Grave (σεμνούς); as 1 Timothy 3:8, 11 (see too 1 Timothy 2:2; 1 Timothy 3:4). Sober-minded (σώφρονας); as Titus 1:8, note. Sound (ὑγιαίνοντας); see ver. 1, note, and Titus 1:13, where, as here, the word is applied to persons, as it is in its literal sense in 3 John 1:2. Faith... love... patience. We have the same triad in 1 Timothy 6:11. In 1 Corinthians 13:13 we find "faith, hope, love." In 1 Thessalonians 1:3 the apostle joins "work of faith, labor of love," and "patience of hope," which last phrase seems almost to identify patience and hope (cutup. too Romans 8:25; Romans 15:4). We must not miss the important warning, not only to have some kind of faith, love, and patience, but to be healthy and vigorous in our faith, love, and patience. There is a puny faith, a sickly love. and a misdirected patience.
The aged women likewise, that they be in behaviour as becometh holiness, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of good things;
Verse 3. - That for the, A.V; be reverent in demeanor for that they be in behavior as becometh holiness, A.V.; slanderers for false accusers, A.V.; nor for not, A.V.; enslaved for given, A.V.; that which is good for good things, A.V. Reverent (ἱεροπρεπεῖς); only here in the New Testament, twice in 4 Maccabees (in 9:25, where the eldest of the seven brothers who suffered martyrdom ruder Antiochus Epiphanes is called ὁἱεροπρεπὴς νεανίας; and in 11:20, where it is coupled with αἰών, "age," or "generation"); it is not uncommon in classical Greek. The word means "becoming a holy person, place, or matter;" otherwise expressed in 1 Timothy 2:10, "which becometh women professing godliness;" and Ephesians 5:3, "as becometh saints." In demeanor (ἐν καταστήματι; Of much wider meaning than καταστολή in 1 Timothy 2:7); here only in the New Testament, once in 3Macc. 5:45, "a state" or "condition," spoken of elephants; and so in classical Greek, applied to a man, to health, to the air, or the body politic. Here mien, demeanor, or deportment, including, as St. Jerome expounds it, the movements of the body, the expression of the countenance, what is said, and what is left unsaid. The whole habit and composition or structure of mind and body is to be ἱερόπρεπες, what becomes a holy woman. Slanderers (διαβόλους); as 1 Timothy 3. (q.v.). Nor enslaved to much wine (comp. 1 Timothy 3:8). Observe the fitness of the phrase "enslaved." The drunkard is thoroughly the slave of his vicious appetite (cutup. Titus 3:3; Romans 6:16; 2 Peter 2:19). Teachers of that which is good (καλοδιδασκάλους); only here in the New Testament, not found in the LXX., or in classical Greek; teachers, by their holy demeanor as well as by their words. For as Ignatius (quoted by Ellicott) says of the Bishop of the Trallians, "His very demeanor (αὐτὸ τὸ κατάστημα) was a great lesson (μοθητεία)."
That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children,
Verse 4. - Train for teach... to be sober, A.V. Train (σωφρονίζωσι); only here in the New Testament, not found in the LXX., but common in classical Greek in the sense of to "correct," "control," or "moderate," which is its meaning here. Ellicott renders it "school" (comp. 1 Timothy 5:14). The A.V. "teach to be sober" is manifestly wrong. To love their husbands (φιλάνδρους εῖναι); here only in the New Testament, not found in the LXX., but occasionally, in this sense, in classical Greek. To love their children (φιλοτέκνους); here only in the New Testament, not found in the LXX. except in 4 Macc. 15:4, but not uncommon in classical Greek.
To be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed.
Verse 5. - Sober-minded for discreet, A.V.; workers for keepers, A.V. and T.R.; kind for good, A.V.; being in subjection for obedient, A.V. Sober-minded (σώφρονας); as in ver. 2 and Titus 1:8; 1 Timothy 3:2. "Discreet" is nearer the sense than "sober-minded." Perhaps the French sage is nearer still. Workers at home (οἰκουργούς, for the T.R. οἰκουρούς). Neither word occurs elsewhere in the New Testament or in the LXX., nor does οἰκουργός in classical Greek. But οἰκουρός, which is probably the true reading (Huther), is common in good classical Greek for "stayers at home." It is derived from οῖκος and οῦρος, a "keeper." Kind (ἀγαθάς). The idea of kindness or good nature seems to be the side of goodness here intended; as we say, "He was very good to me" (so Matthew 20:15 and 1 Peter 2:18). Kindness is the leading idea in ἀγαθός. Obedient (ὑποτασσόμενας). These identical words occur in 1 Peter 3:1 (see too Ephesians 5:22; Colossians 3:18). That the Word of God be not blasphemed (see 1 Timothy 6:1). St. Paul complains that the Name of God was blasphemed among the Gentiles on account of the evil deeds of the Jews (Romans 2:24; see Ezekiel 36:20-23). Our Lord, on the other hand, exhorts that Christians, by their good works, should lead men to glorify their Father which is in heaven. The passage before us shows how much the honor of Christianity is bound up with the faithful discharge by Christians of the simple domestic duties of life. In truth, the family is the chief seat, and often the main test, of Christian virtue, as it is the distinctive feature of humanity as ordained by God.
Young men likewise exhort to be sober minded.
Verse 6. - The younger for young, A.V. The younger (see 1 Peter 5:5, where, however, the νεώτεροι are contrasted with the πρεσβύτεροι, as in 1 Timothy 5:1; here with πρεσβύτας in ver. 2).
In all things shewing thyself a pattern of good works: in doctrine shewing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity,
Verse 7. - An ensample for a pattern, A.V.; thy doctrine for doctrine, A.V.; R.T. omits sincerity (ἀφθαρσίαν), which is in the T.R. In all things (περὶ πάντα); as 1 Timothy 1:19 (περὶ τὴν πίστιν); "concerning, in the matter of" (Ellicott on 1 Timothy 1:19). St. Jerome and others connect these words with the preceding clause, "to be sober-minded in all things." But it is usually taken as in the text, "in all things showing thyself," etc. Showing thyself, etc. With regard to the somewhat unusual addition of the reflexive pronoun to the verb in the middle voice, Bishop Ellicott remarks, "Emphasis and perspicuity are gained" by it. An ensample (τύπον). Huther remarks that this is the only passage in the New Testament where τύπος is followed by a genitive of the thing. In 1 Timothy 4:12 the genitive is of the person to whom the example is given, in word, in conversation, etc., and in 1 Peter 5:3, τύπος τοῦ πομνίου. Of good works (comp. Titus 3:8). Note the stress laid by St. Paul upon Christian practice as the result of sound doctrine. Mere talk is absolutely worthless. Uncorruptness (ἀφθορίαν, or, as T.R., ἀδιαφθορίαν); only here in the New Testament, and not in the LXX. or in classical Greek. Ἀφθορία has the best manuscript authority; but the sense of ἀδιαφθορία as deduced from the good classical word ἀδιάφθορος, which means among other things "incorruptible" - not to be influenced by entreaties or bribes - seems to make it preferable. The word describes the quality of the teacher rather than of his doctrine. He is to preach the truth without fear or favor. Gravity (σεμνότητα); as 1 Timothy 2:2; 1 Timothy 3:4. This, again, is a quality of the teacher. These accusatives depend upon παρεχόμενος. But the construction of the sentence is somewhat irregular for brevity's sake.
Sound speech, that cannot be condemned; that he that is of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say of you.
Verse 8. - Us for you, A.V. and T.R. Sound speech (λόγον ὑγιῆ); still depending upon παρεχύμενος. Besides his personal qualities as a teacher, his speech, or doctrine, must be sound. The word, common of bodily health, is only here applied to speech or doctrine; the common phrase in the pastoral Epistles is ὑγιασινούση διδασκαλία, ὑγιαίνουσι λόγοις, and the like. That cannot be condemned (ἀκατάγνωστον); only here in the New Testament, once in 2 Macc. 4:27. This marks the care that the Christian teacher must take not to say anything in his teaching rash, or reprehensible, or that can give offence or cause the ministry to be blamed (camp. 1 Timothy 5:14). May be ashamed (ἐντραπῇ). In the active voice ἐντρέπειν is "to put to shame" (1 Corinthians 4:14), and in classical Greek. In the middle voice ἐντρέπομαι, followed by a genitive of the person, or an accusative in later Greek, means to "respect, reverence" (Matthew 21:37; Luke 18:2, etc.). In the passive, as here and 2 Thessalonians 3:14, it means "to be put to shame," "to be ashamed" (comp. Psalm 34:4 LXX., 35:40. (Compare, for the sentiment, 1 Peter 2:15; 1 Peter 3:16; and note the frequent resemblances between the pastoral Epistles and those of St. Peter.) The shame of the detractors consists in their being put to silence, having nothing to say, being proved to be slanderers. No evil thing (μηδὲν φαῦλον); as James 3:16; John 3:20; John 5:29. The word means "mean, worthless, paltry," and is hence synonymous with
Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters, and to please them well in all things; not answering again;
Verse 9. - In subjection to for obedient unto, A.V.; be well-pleasing to them for please them well, A.V.; gainsaying for answering gain, A.V. Servants; i.e. dares (δούλους), the correlative to which is δεσπόταις, masters, who had absolute power over their slaves, and property in them (comp. 1 Peter 2:18, where they are called by the name of οἰκέται, house-slaves). The construction is carried on from the "exhort" of ver. 6. Well-pleasing (εὐαρέστους); elsewhere spoken with reference to God (Romans 12:1; 2 Corinthians 5:9; Ephesians 5:10, etc.). In all things (ἐν πᾶσιν); nearly the same as περὶ πάντα in ver. 7; to be taken with εὐαρέστους. Some, however, connect the words with ὑποτάσσεσθαι, "to be obedient in all things." Gainsaying (ἐντιλέγοντας); as in Titus 1:9 (see note). Here, however, the" answering again" of the A.V. is a better rendering. It implies, of course, a resistance to the will of their master, and impatience of any rebuke (comp. 1 Peter 2:18-20).
Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.
Verse 10. - Purloining (νοσφιζομένους); literally, separating for their own use what does not belong to them. So Acts 5:2, 3, "to keep back part." It is used in the same sense by the LXX. Joshua 7:1 of Achan, and 2 Macc. 4:32 of Menelaus, and occasionally in classical Greek (Xenophon, Polybius, etc.). Showing (ἐνδεικνυμένους). It occurs eleven times in the New Testament, viz. twice in Hebrews, and nine times in St. Paul's acknowledged Epistles. All good fidelity. All fidelity means fidelity in everything where fidelity is required in a faithful servant - care of his master's property, conscientious labor, keeping of time, acting behind his master's back the same as before his face. The singular addition ἀγαθήν, coming after ἐνδεικνυμένους, must mean, as Bengel says, "in all good things." The duty of fidelity does not extend to crime or wrong-doing. The word "good" is like the addition in the oath of canonical obedience, "in all honest things," and is a necessary limitation to the preceding "all" (see Titus 3:1, and note). The doctrine (τὴν διδασκαλίον) as in ver. 1 (where see note). In Titus 1:9 (where see note) ἡ διδαχή is used in the same way. This use of διδασκαλία is confirmed by the reading of the R.T., which inserts a second τήν before τοῦ σωτῆρος. Adorn the doctrine. The sentiment is the same as that in 1 Peter 2:12; 1 Peter 4:11. Christians are exhorted to give glory to God, and support and honor to the gospel of God's grace, by their good works and holy lives. God our Savior (see 1 Timothy 1:1; 1 Timothy 2:3; 1 Timothy 4:10; and above, Titus 1:3, note). In all things (ἐν πᾶσιν); as 1 Peter 4:11.
For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,
Verse 11. - Hath appeared, bringing salvation to all men, for that bringeth salvation, hath appeared to all men, A.V. and T.R. Bringing salvation to all men (σωτήριος). The R.T. omits the article before σωτήριος, which necessitates construing πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις with σωτήριος, "saving to all men" "bringing salvation to all men." With the article as in the T.R., it may be taken either way, but it is rather more natural to construe πᾶσιν ἀθρώποις with ἐπεφάνη, "hath appeared to all men." The meaning of the phrase, "hath appeared to all men," is the same as the saying in the song of Simeon, "Mine eyes have seen thy salvation, which thou hast prepared before the face of all people" (Luke 2:30, 31; comp. Colossians 1:6). The gospel is not a hidden mystery, but is proclaimed to the whole world. Σωτήριος as an adjective is found only here in the New Testament, in Wisd. 1:14 and 3Macc. 7:18, and frequently in classical Greek.
Teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world;
Verse 12. - Instructing for teaching, A.V.; to the intent that for that, A.V.; and righteously for righteously, A.V. Instructing us, to the intent that. This is an unnecessary refinement. Huther is right in saying that the sentence beginning with ἵνα might have been expressed by the infinitive mood, as in 1 Timothy 1:20, and that we ought to render it not "in order that," but simply "that." The phrase in 1 Timothy 1:20, ἵνα παιδευθῶσι μὴ βλασφημεῖν, manifestly would justify the phrase, παιδεύουσα ἡμᾶς ζῆν δικαίως, "teaching us to live righteously." Alford surely is wrong in saying that the universal New Testament sense of παιδεύειν is "to discipline," i.e. teach by correction. In Acts 7:22; Acts 22:3; 1 Timothy 1:20; 2 Timothy 2:25, the idea of teaching, not of correcting, is predominant. But even if it was so, the pastoral Epistles are so decidedly classical in their use of words, that the classical use of παιδεύειν in such phrases as παιδεύειν τινα κιθαρίζειν or σώφρονα εἴναι (Liddell and Scott)is an abundant justification of a similar rendering of this passage And as regards the use ἵνα, such phrases as Αἰπὲ ἵνα οἱ λίθοι οῦτοι ἄρτοι γενῶνται, "Command that these stones become bread" (Matthew 4:3; Matthew 20:21; Luke 4:3; Luke 10:40); Διεστείλατο... ἵνα μηδενὶ εἴπωσιν, "He commanded them not to tell" (Matthew 16:20); Συμφέρει αὐτῷ ἴνα, "It is profitable for him that" (Matthew 18:6); Προσεύχεσθε ἵνα, "Pray that" (Matthew 24:20); Παρεκάλει αὐτὸν ἵνα μή, "He besought him not to send them away" (Mark 5:10); Παρακαλοῦσιν αὐτὸν ἵνα ἅψηται, "They beseech him to touch" (Mark 8:22, 30; Mark 9:9; Mark 10:37; Mark 13:34; Luke 1:43; Luke 7:36); Ἐδεήθην... ἵνα, "I asked... to" (Luke 9:40); Ἐρωτῶ σε ἵνα πέμψῃς, "I intreat thee to send" (Luke 16:29; Colossians 4:2;, etc.); - prove that the sense "in order that" is not necessarily attached to ἵνα, but that we may properly render the passage before us "teaching us... to live soberly," etc.
Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;
Verse 13. - The for that, A.V.; appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior for the glorious appearing of the great God, and our Savior, A.V. Looking for (προσδεχόμενοι); the word commonly applied to waiting for the kingdom of God (Mark 15:43; Luke 2:25, 38; Luke 12:36; Luke 23:51; Jude 1:21). The blessed hope. The hope here means the thing hoped for, as in Acts 24:14 (where both the subjective hope and the thing hoped for are included); Galatians 5:5; Colossians 1:5 (comp. too Romans 8:24, 25). Here the hope is called emphatically "the blessed hope," the hope of Christ's second coming in glory, that hope which is the joy and life, the strength and comfort, of every Christian soul. This is the only place in the New Testament where μακάριος is applied to an object which does not itself enjoy the blessing, but is a source of blessing to others. Of the fifty passages where it occurs it is applied in forty-three to persons, twice to God, three times to parts of the body (the Virgin's womb, and the eyes and ears of those who saw and heard Christ), once impersonally ("It is more blessed to give," etc., Acts 20:35), and once, in this passage, to the hope. And appearing of the glory. In construing this clause, as well as the following, the same difficulty occurs. There is only one article to the two subjects. The question arises - Can two different subjects stand under one article? Huther affirms that they can, and refers for proof to Buttman and Wince; and, indeed, it is impossible to treat "the hope" and the "appearing" as one subject. Accepting this, the clause before us should be rendered, Looking for the blessed hope, and the appearing of the glory of the great God. This is a description of the second coming of the Lord, of whom it is expressly said that he will "come in the glory of his Father" (Matthew 16:27; Mark 8:38). The appearing of Christ will be the appearing of the glory of the great God, not the appearing of God the Father, to whom the term ἐπιφανεία is never applied, but of the Son, who is the Brightness of his Father's glory. Our great God and Savior Jesus Christ. No doubt the Greek words can be so rendered, and perhaps (grammatically) most naturally, as e.g. in 2 Peter 1:11, where we read, "The kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ;" and so 2 Peter 3:18. But, on the other hand, according to what is said above, they need not be so rendered. "The great God" and "our Savior Jesus Christ" may be two separate subjects, as "the blessed hope" and "appearing of the glory" are. Anti we have to inquire, from the usual language of Scripture, which of the two is most probable. Alford, in a long note, shows that σωτὴρ is often used without the article (1 Timothy 1:1; 1 Timothy 4:10; Philippians 3:20); that in analogous sentences: where Κύριος is used as our Lord's title, an exactly similar construction to that in the text is employed, as 2 Thessalonians 1:12; 2 Peter 1:1; 2 Corinthians 1:2; Galatians 1:3; Ephesians 1:2; Ephesians 6:23, etc. He also observes, after Wince, that the insertion of ἡμῶν after Σωτῆρος is an additional reason for the omission of the article before Σωτῆρος, as in Luke 1:78; Romans 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:3, and elsewhere; and that the epithet μεγάλου prefixed to Θεοῦ makes it still more difficult to connect Θεοῦ with Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Ξριστοῦ; and lastly, he compares this passage with 1 Timothy 2:3, 5, 6, and thinks the conclusion inevitable that the apostle, writing two sentences so closely corresponding - written, it may be added, so near to one another in time - would have had in view, in both passages, the same distinction of persons which is so strongly marked in 1 Timothy 3:3, 5. On these grounds he pronounces against the rendering which is adopted by the Revised Version. Huther's conclusion is the same: partly from the grammatical possibility of two subjects (here Θεοῦ and Ἰησοῦ Ξριστοῦ) having only one article, which leaves the question of whether there are here one or two subjects to be decided on other grounds than simple grammar; and partly and chiefly from the double consideration that

(1) nowhere in Scripture is Θεός connected directly with Ἰησοῦς Ξριστός, as Κύριος and Σωτήρ so often are; and

(2) that the collocation of God (Θεός) and Christ as two subjects is of constant occurrence, as e.g. 1 Timothy 1:1, 2; 1 Timothy 5:21; 1 Timothy 6:13; 2 Timothy 1:2; 2 Timothy 4:1; Titus 1:4; to which may probably be added 2 Peter 1:1; Jude 1:4; 2 Thessalonians 1:12; he decides, surely rightly, that the clause should be rendered, the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ. Another question arises whether the glory belongs to both subjects. Probably, though not necessarily, it does, since we are told in Matthew 17:27 that "the Son of man shall come in the glory of the Father;" and in Matthew 25:31, "the Son of man shall come in his glory" (comp. Matthew 19:28). The whole sentence will then stand thus: Looking for the blessed hope, and for the appearing of the glory of the great God and of our Savior Jesus Christ, etc. The great God (τοῦ μεγάλου); not elsewhere in the New Testament (except in the T.R. of Revelation 19:17), but familiar to us from Psalm 95:3, "The Lord is a great God," and elsewhere, KS Deuteronomy 10:17; Deuteronomy 7:21; Psalm 77:14, etc. In Matthew 5:35' we read "the great King" of God. This grand description of τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰῶνος, "the world to come," is in contrast with τῷ νῦν οἰῶνι, "this present world," in which our present life is passed, but which is so deeply influenced by "the blessed hope" of that future and glorious world.
Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.
Verse 14. - A people for his own possession for a peculiar people, A.V. Who gave himself for us. The resemblance in thought and diction to 1 Timothy 2:3-6 has been already pointed out. "Who gave himself" (ο{ς ἔδωκεν ἑαυτόν) is there expressed by ὁ δοὺς ἑαυτόν, and "that he might redeem us" (ἵνα λυτρώσηται ἡμᾶς) by ἀντίλυτρον ὑπὲρ πάντων. (For the great truths contained in the words "who gave himself," comp. John 10:11, 17, 18; Galatians 1:4; Ephesians 5:2, 25; 1 Peter 2:24; Hebrews 9:14.) The voluntary offering of himself is also implied in the office of our Lord as High Priest (Hebrews 9:11-14). For us (ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν); on our behalf; not exactly synonymous with ἀντὶ ἡμῶν, "in our stead." Both phrases, however, are used of our redemption by Jesus Christ. We find ὑπὲρ in Luke 22:19, 20; John 6:51: 10:11, 15; 11:50-52; 15:13; 18:14; Romans 5:6, 8; Romans 8:32; 1 Corinthians 5:7; 2 Corinthians 5:14, 15, 21; Galatians 1:4; Ephesians 5:2, 25; 1 Thessalonians 3:10; Hebrews 2:9; 1 Peter 2:21; 1 Peter 3:18; 1 Peter 4:1; 1 John 3:16: and we find ἀντί in Matthew 20:28 and Mark 10:45, and in αντίλυτρον, 1 Timothy 2:6. The literal meaning of ὑπὲρ is "in defense of," and hence generally "on behalf of," "for the good of." The primary idea of ἄντι is "standing opposite," and hence it denotes "exchange," "price," "worth," "instead," etc. Redeem (λυτρώσηται); as Luke 24:21:1 Peter 1:18; common in classical Greek. In the middle voice, as here, it means "to release by payment of a ransom;" in the active voice, "to release on receipt of a ransom." In 1 Peter 1:18 the ransom price is stated, viz. "the precious blood of Christ;" as in Matthew 20:28 it is "the life of the Son of man." The effect of this redemption is not merely deliverance from the penalty of sin, but from its power also, as appears by the following words: "a peculiar people, zealous of good works," and by the passage in St. Peter above referred to. Purify (καθαρίσῃ); as very frequently in the New Testament of cleansing lepers, the outside of the platter, etc., cleansing the Gentiles (Acts 10:15), putting away all sin (2 Corinthians 7:1), cleansing the Church (Ephesians 5:26), purging the conscience (Hebrews 9:14), etc. The iniquity just spoken of was a defilement; the redemption from iniquity removed that defilement. The blood of Jesus Christ, the price paid for the redemption, was the instrument of cleansing (1 John 1:7, 9). A people for his own possession (καὸν περιούσιον); only here in the New Testament, but frequent in the LXX., coupled, as here, with λαός (Exodus 19:5; Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18), to express the Hebrew סְגֻלָּה or עַם סְגֻלָּה, a people the peculiar property, or treasure, of God; "peculiar" being derived from the Latin peculium, one's own private property, reserved for one's own private use. The Authorized Version "peculiar" expresses the sense exactly, and the περιούσιος of our text and of the LXX., from whom it is borrowed, is meant to define either that special reserved portion of a man's property over and above what he spends for ordinary expenses, which nobody can interfere with, or those jewels on which he sets a special value, and places safely in his treasury. In 1 Peter 2:10 λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν ("a peculiar people," Authorized Version) means the same thing, that being the LXX. translation of the same Hebrew word, סְגֻלָּה, in Malachi 3:17 ("jewels," Authorized Version), "They shall be my reserved portion or possession." The application of the phrase, λαὸν περιούσιον, descriptive in the Old Testament of Israel, to the Church of Christ, is very instructive. The passage in 1 Peter 2:10 is exactly analogous, as is the phrase, "the Israel of God" (Galatians 6:16). Zealous (ζηλωτής); as Acts 21:20; Acts 22:3; 1 Corinthians 14:12; Galatians 1:14. From its special application to those who were zealous for the Law of Moses it became the name of the sect or party of the Zealots who played such a terrible part in the Jewish war (see Luke 4:15). Canaanite (Matthew 10:4; Mark 3:18) is the Hebrew for Ζηλωτής. Zeal for good works is the indispensable mark of God's peculiar people, the inseparable fruit of the redemption and purification which is by the blood of Jesus Christ (comp. 1 Peter 1:2).
These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee.
Verse 15. - Reprove fur rebuke, A.V. Authority (ἐπιταγῆς); see 1 Timothy 1:1 and above, Titus 1:3, "authoritative commandment." Let no man despise thee (περιφρονείσω); here only in the New Testament; used in a different sense by the LXX. in Wisd. 1:1, but in the same sense as here in 4 Macc. 6:9, and also in classical Greek. In 1 Timothy 4:12 and 1 Tim 6:2 St. Paul uses the more common word, καταφρονέω. The apostle thus winds up the preceding portion of his Epistle.

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