King James Bible

King James Version (KJV)

King James Bible KJV

Palestine


Originally denoted only the sea-coast of the land of Canaan "inhabited by the Philistines (Ex. 15:14; Isa. 14:29, 31; Joel" "3:4), and in this sense exclusively the Hebrew name Pelesheth" "(rendered "Philistia" in Ps. 60:8; 83:7; 87:4; 108:9) occurs in" the Old Testament. "Not till a late period in Jewish history was this name used to "denote "the land of the Hebrews" in general (Gen. 40:15). It is" "also called "the holy land" (Zech. 2:12), the "land of Jehovah" "(Hos. 9:3; Ps. 85:1), the "land of promise" (Heb. 11:9), because" "promised to Abraham (Gen. 12:7; 24:7), the "land of Canaan" "(Gen. 12:5), the "land of Israel" (1 Sam. 13:19), and the "land" "of Judah" (Isa. 19:17)." "The territory promised as an inheritance to the seed of Abraham (Gen. 15:18-21; Num. 34:1-12) was bounded on the east by the "river Euphrates, on the west by the Mediterranean, on the north" "by the "entrance of Hamath," and on the south by the "river of" "Egypt." This extent of territory, about 60,000 square miles, was" "at length conquered by David, and was ruled over also by his son" "Solomon (2 Sam. 8; 1 Chr. 18; 1 Kings 4:1, 21). This vast empire" "was the Promised Land; but Palestine was only a part of it," terminating in the north at the southern extremity of the "Lebanon range, and in the south in the wilderness of Paran, thus" extending in all to about 144 miles in length. Its average breadth was about 60 miles from the Mediterranean on the west to "beyond the Jordan. It has fittingly been designated "the least" "of all lands." Western Palestine, on the south of Gaza, is only" about 40 miles in breadth from the Mediterranean to the Dead "Sea, narrowing gradually toward the north, where it is only 20" miles from the sea-coast to the Jordan. "Palestine, "set in the midst" (Ezek. 5:5) of all other lands, is the most remarkable country on the face of the earth. No single "country of such an extent has so great a variety of climate, and" "hence also of plant and animal life. Moses describes it as "a" "good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths" "that spring out of valleys and hills; a land of wheat, and" "barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of" "oil olive, and honey; a land wherein thou shalt not eat bread" "without scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing in it; a land" "whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig" "brass" (Deut. 8:7-9)." "In the time of Christ the country looked, in all probability, "much as now. The whole land consists of rounded limestone hills," "fretted into countless stony valleys, offering but rarely level" "tracts, of which Esdraelon alone, below Nazareth, is large" enough to be seen on the map. The original woods had for ages "disappeared, though the slopes were dotted, as now, with figs," "olives, and other fruit-trees where there was any soil." "Permanent streams were even then unknown, the passing rush of" winter torrents being all that was seen among the hills. The "autumn and spring rains, caught in deep cisterns hewn out like" "huge underground jars in the soft limestone, with artificial" "mud-banked ponds still found near all villages, furnished water." "Hills now bare, or at best rough with stunted growth, were then" "terraced, so as to grow vines, olives, and grain. To-day almost" "desolate, the country then teemed with population. Wine-presses" "cut in the rocks, endless terraces, and the ruins of old" vineyard towers are now found amidst solitudes overgrown for "ages with thorns and thistles, or with wild shrubs and poor" "gnarled scrub" (Geikie's Life of Christ)." "From an early period the land was inhabited by the descendants "of Canaan, who retained possession of the whole land "from Sidon" "to Gaza" till the time of the conquest by Joshua, when it was" occupied by the twelve tribes. Two tribes and a half had their allotments given them by Moses on the east of the Jordan (Deut. 3:12-20; comp. Num. 1:17-46; Josh. 4:12-13). The remaining tribes had their portion on the west of Jordan. "From the conquest till the time of Saul, about four hundred "years, the people were governed by judges. For a period of one" hundred and twenty years the kingdom retained its unity while it was ruled by Saul and David and Solomon. On the death of "Solomon, his son Rehoboam ascended the throne; but his conduct" "was such that ten of the tribes revolted, and formed an" "independent monarchy, called the kingdom of Israel, or the" "northern kingdom, the capital of which was first Shechem and" afterwards Samaria. This kingdom was destroyed. The Israelites "were carried captive by Shalmanezer, king of Assyria, B.C. 722," after an independent existence of two hundred and fifty-three years. The place of the captives carried away was supplied by "tribes brought from the east, and thus was formed the Samaritan" nation (2 Kings 17:24-29). "Nebuchadnezzar came up against the kingdom of the two tribes, "the kingdom of Judah, the capital of which was Jerusalem, one" hundred and thirty-four years after the overthrow of the kingdom "of Israel. He overthrew the city, plundered the temple, and" "carried the people into captivity to Babylon (B.C. 587), where" they remained seventy years. At the close of the period of the "Captivity, they returned to their own land, under the edict of" "Cyrus (Ezra 1:1-4). They rebuilt the city and temple, and" restored the old Jewish commonwealth. "For a while after the Restoration the Jews were ruled by "Zerubbabel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, and afterwards by the high" "priests, assisted by the Sanhedrin. After the death of Alexander" "the Great at Babylon (B.C. 323), his vast empire was divided" "between his four generals. Egypt, Arabia, Palestine, and" Coele-Syria fell to the lot of Ptolemy Lagus. Ptolemy took "possession of Palestine in B.C. 320, and carried nearly one" hundred thousand of the inhabitants of Jerusalem into Egypt. He "made Alexandria the capital of his kingdom, and treated the Jews" "with consideration, confirming them in the enjoyment of many" privileges. "After suffering persecution at the hands of Ptolemy's "successors, the Jews threw off the Egyptian yoke, and became" "subject to Antiochus the Great, the king of Syria. The cruelty" and opression of the successors of Antiochus at length led to "the revolt under the Maccabees (B.C. 163), when they threw off" the Syrian yoke. "In the year B.C. 68, Palestine was reduced by Pompey the Great "to a Roman province. He laid the walls of the city in ruins, and" massacred some twelve thousand of the inhabitants. He left the "temple, however, unijured. About twenty-five years after this" the Jews revolted and cast off the Roman yoke. They were "however, subdued by Herod the Great (q.v.). The city and the" "temple were destroyed, and many of the inhabitants were put to" "death. About B.C. 20, Herod proceeded to rebuild the city and" "restore the ruined temple, which in about nine years and a half" was so far completed that the sacred services could be resumed "in it (comp. John 2:20). He was succeeded by his son Archelaus," "who was deprived of his power, however, by Augustus, A.D. 6," "when Palestine became a Roman province, ruled by Roman governors" or procurators. Pontius Pilate was the fifth of these procurators. He was appointed to his office A.D. 25. "Exclusive of Idumea, the kingdom of Herod the Great comprehended the whole of the country originally divided among the twelve "tribes, which he divided into four provinces or districts. This" division was recognized so long as Palestine was under the Roman "dominion. These four provinces were, (1) Judea, the southern" "portion of the country; (2) Samaria, the middle province, the" northern boundary of which ran along the hills to the south of "the plain of Esdraelon; (3) Galilee, the northern province; and" "(4) Peraea (a Greek name meaning the "opposite country"), the" country lying east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea. This province "was subdivided into these districts, (1) Peraea proper, lying" between the rivers Arnon and Jabbok; (2) Galaaditis (Gilead); "(3) Batanaea; (4) Gaulonitis (Jaulan); (5) Ituraea or Auranitis," "the ancient Bashan; (6) Trachonitis; (7) Abilene; (8) Decapolis," "i.e., the region of the ten cities. The whole territory of" "Palestine, including the portions alloted to the trans-Jordan" "tribes, extended to about eleven thousand square miles. Recent" exploration has shown the territory on the west of Jordan alone "to be six thousand square miles in extent, the size of the" principality of Wales.


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