they shall be unto you without blemish, and their drink offerings; the flour, of which the meat offerings were made, was to be pure and clean, and free from vermin; and the wine for the drink offering was not to be palled, and dead, and dreggy: of the former, it is said in the Misnah (l),"the treasurer puts his hand into it (the flour); if there comes any dust with it,''it is rejected; if it produces worms, it is rejected: this, the commentators say (m), is to be understood, if the greatest part of it is such; and with respect to the latter, Jarchi says, our Rabbins learn from hence (this passage of Scripture) that wine in which flour rises (or a dregginess like flour) it is unfit for drink offerings, for they should be perfect: this denotes the purity of Christ, the bread of life, and his spotless and perfect sacrifice, when his soul was poured out unto death.
(l) Menachot, c. 8. sect. 2.((m) Maimon. & Bartenora in Misn. Menachot, c. 8. sect. 2.
INTRODUCTION TO Numbers 29
In this chapter an account is given of the various offerings on the several remarkable days in the seventh month of the year; at the feast of blowing the trumpets on the first day of the month, Numbers 29:1, at the great fast or day of atonement, which was the tenth of the month, Numbers 29:7, and at the feast of tabernacles, which began on the fifteenth day of the same month, and continued eight days, and the sacrifices of every day are particularly mentioned; of the first day, Numbers 29:12, of the second day, Numbers 29:17, of the third day, Numbers 29:20, of the fourth day, Numbers 29:23, of the fifth day, Numbers 29:26, of the sixth day, Numbers 29:29, of the seventh day, Numbers 29:32, and of the eighth day, Numbers 29:35, which sacrifices were to be offered, besides their vows and freewill offerings, of which Moses gave a faithful account, according to the command of God, Numbers 29:39.
on the first day of the month, ye shall have a holy convocation; see Leviticus 23:24,
ye shall do no servile work; therefore, in the place referred to, is called a sabbath:
it is a day of blowing the trumpets unto you; of which; see Gill on Leviticus 23:24.
one young bullock, one ram, and seven lambs of the first year without blemish, which was the same, only one bullock less, with the offerings on the first day of the month, the seven days of unleavened bread, and the day of the firstfruits, Numbers 28:11, Numbers 28:19, Numbers 28:27.
and the daily burnt offering; the two lambs of the daily sacrifice; these also were offered as usual, so that there were offered on this day three bullocks, two rams, and sixteen lambs:
and his meat offering, and their drink offerings, according to their manner; these also were offered with the daily sacrifice, according to the law and rule prescribed for the making of them, and all were
for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the Lord; for they were burnt sacrifices, and very acceptable to the Lord, as they were types of the better sacrifice, with which he is infinitely well pleased; and it is with respect to that that such a number of sacrifices were appointed.
and ye shall afflict your souls; or persons; their bodies by fasting, and their souls by repentance and humiliation; for this was a grand fast, as it is called Acts 27:9,
ye shall not do any work therein; see Leviticus 23:28.
beside the sin offering of atonement; hence, say they, we learn, that the goat within, which was of the service of the day, went before it (n); after that the ram of Aaron, and the ram of the people, and after that the fat of the sin offering:
and the continual burnt offering, and the meat offering of it, and their drink offerings; which were never omitted on account of the service of any day, though ever so solemn, as this was: hence it appears that there were offered on this day of atonement two bullocks, three rams, three goats, and two lambs.
(n) Bartenora in Misn. Yoma, c. 7. sect. 3.
ye shall do no servile work, and ye shall keep a feast unto the Lord seven days; the feast of tabernacles, which began on the fifteenth day of this month.
thirteen young bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs of the first year, they shall be without blemish; a very large sacrifice indeed, for these were offered besides one kid of the goats, for a sin offering, and the two lambs of the daily sacrifice, which were not omitted on account of this extraordinary offering; so that there were no less than thirty two animals sacrificed on this day: the meat and drink offerings for each, according to the kind of them, were as usual, and as before frequently observed; and the same sacrifices, meat offerings, and drink offerings, were offered on the six following days of the feast, only with this difference, that there was one bullock less every day; which it is thought may denote the decrease of sin in the people, and so an increase of holiness, or rather the gradual waxing old and vanishing away of the ceremonial law, and the sacrifices of it; and these bullocks ending in the number seven, which is a number may lead us to think of the great sacrifice these all typified, whereby Christ has perfected them that are sanctified.
ye shall do no servile work therein; See Gill on Leviticus 23:36.
besides your vows, and your freewill offerings: which might be offered up at any time, notwithstanding the above sacrifices, which were necessary and obligatory; but these were at their own option:
for your burnt offerings, and for your meat offerings, and your drink offerings, and for your peace offerings; of which see Leviticus 7:11.
(o) Maimon. & Bartenora in Misn. Pesach, c. 7. sect. 4.