This is the first occurrence in this Epistle of a very interesting word (diath?k?) which hereafter will occupy an important place in the argument. Throughout the Greek translation of the Old Testament it is used to represent a Hebrew word which is (more than 200 times) rightly rendered covenant in our version; and, like the Hebrew word, it is applied both to mutual agreements between man and man, and to "covenants" or engagements into which God enters in regard to man. In classical writers diath?k? commonly denotes a testament; and hence in the old Latin translation of the Scriptures testamentum became the common rendering of the word. As, however, this rendering is very often found where it is impossible to think of such a meaning as will (for example, in Psalm 83:5, where no one will suppose the Psalmist to say that the enemies of God "have arranged a testament against Him"), it is plain that the Latin testamentum was used with an extended meaning, answering to the wide application of the Greek word. St. Paul's designation of the Jewish Scriptures as "the Old Covenant" (2 Corinthians 3:14) thus became familiarly known as The Old Testament. In the New Testament the Authorised version more commonly presents the better rendering; but, through the influence of the Latin, testament is retained in several places--viz., in the various accounts of the institution of the Lord's Supper; in 2 Corinthians 3:6; 2 Corinthians 3:14; in Revelation 11:19 ("the ark of His testament," a very strange translation); in the present verse; and especially in the very important passage, Hebrews 9:15-20. There is a very general agreement of opinion that "covenant" must be the true meaning in all passages of the New Testament except the one last mentioned; and even in that place there are strong reasons for retaining the same rendering. (See the Note on Hebrews 9:15.) In this verse, at all events, we cannot doubt that the writer is thinking of a covenant. (See Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 8:8.) Here only is Jesus spoken of as Surety, elsewhere as Mediator (Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 12:24). As through the Son of Man the covenant becomes established, so in Him it remains secure; the words addressed by God to Him as Priest and King contain the pledge of its validity and permanence.