"Witness, a word not found in the original Hebrew, nor in the" "LXX. and Vulgate, but added by the translators in the Authorized" "Version, also in the Revised Version, of Josh. 22:34. The words" "are literally rendered: "And the children of Reuben and the" children of Gad named the altar. It is a witness between us that "Jehovah is God." This great altar stood probably on the east" "side of the Jordan, in the land of Gilead, "over against the" "land of Canaan." After the division of the Promised Land, the" "tribes of Reuben and Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh, on" returning to their own settlements on the east of Jordan (Josh. "22:1-6), erected a great altar, which they affirmed, in answer" "to the challenge of the other tribes, was not for sacrifice, but" only as a witness (`Ed) or testimony to future generations that they still retained the same interest in the nation as the other tribes.

"Tower of the flock, a tower between Bethlehem and Hebron, near" which Jacob first halted after leaving Bethlehem (Gen. 35:21). "In Micah 4:8 the word is rendered "tower of the flock" (marg.," "Edar), and is used as a designation of Bethlehem, which" figuratively represents the royal line of David as sprung from Bethlehem.

Delight. (1.) The garden in which our first parents dewlt (Gen. 2:8-17). No geographical question has been so much discussed as "that bearing on its site. It has been placed in Armenia, in the" "region west of the Caspian Sea, in Media, near Damascus, in" "Palestine, in Southern Arabia, and in Babylonia. The site must" undoubtedly be sought for somewhere along the course of the "great streams the Tigris and the Euphrates of Western Asia, in" the land of Shinar or Babylonia. The region from about lat. 33 "degrees 30' to lat. 31 degrees, which is a very rich and fertile" "tract, has been by the most competent authorities agreed on as" "the probable site of Eden. "It is a region where streams abound," "where they divide and re-unite, where alone in the Mesopotamian" tract can be found the phenomenon of a single river parting into "four arms, each of which is or has been a river of consequence." "Among almost all nations there are traditions of the primitive innocence of our race in the garden of Eden. This was the golden age to which the Greeks looked back. Men then lived a "life free from care, and without labour and sorrow. Old age was" unknown; the body never lost its vigour; existence was a perpetual feast without a taint of evil. The earth brought forth "spontaneously all things that were good in profuse abundance." "(2.) One of the markets whence the merchants of Tyre obtained "richly embroidered stuffs (Ezek. 27:23); the same, probably, as" "that mentioned in 2 Kings 19:12, and Isa. 37:12, as the name of" a region conquered by the Assyrians. "(3.) Son of Joah, and one of the Levites who assisted in reforming the public worship of the sanctuary in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:12).

"Flock. (1.) A city in the south of Judah, on the border of" Idumea (Josh. 15:21). "(2.) The second of the three sons of Mushi, of the family of "Merari, appointed to the Levitical office (1 Chr. 23:23; 24:30)."

"(1.) The name of Esau (q.v.), Gen. 25:30, "Feed me, I pray thee," "with that same red pottage [Heb. haadom, haadom, i.e., `the red" "pottage, the red pottage'] ...Therefore was his name called" "Edom", i.e., Red." "(2.) Idumea (Isa. 34:5, 6; Ezek. 35:15). "The field of Edom" "(Gen. 32:3), "the land of Edom" (Gen. 36:16), was mountainous" "(Obad. 1:8, 9, 19, 21). It was called the land, or "the mountain" "of Seir," the rough hills on the east side of the Arabah. It" "extended from the head of the Gulf of Akabah, the Elanitic gulf," "to the foot of the Dead Sea (1 Kings 9:26), and contained, among" "other cities, the rock-hewn Sela (q.v.), generally known by the" "Greek name Petra (2 Kings 14:7). It is a wild and rugged region," traversed by fruitful valleys. Its old capital was Bozrah (Isa. 63:1). The early inhabitants of the land were Horites. They were "destroyed by the Edomites (Deut. 2:12), between whom and the" kings of Israel and Judah there was frequent war (2 Kings 8:20; 2 Chr. 28:17). "At the time of the Exodus they churlishly refused permission to "the Israelites to pass through their land (Num. 20:14-21), and" ever afterwards maintained an attitude of hostility toward them. "They were conquered by David (2 Sam. 8:14; comp. 1 Kings 9:26)," "and afterwards by Amaziah (2 Chr. 25:11, 12). But they regained" "again their independence, and in later years, during the decline" "of the Jewish kingdom (2 Kings 16:6; R.V. marg., "Edomites")," made war against Israel. They took part with the Chaldeans when "Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem, and afterwards they invaded" and held possession of the south of Palestine as far as Hebron. "At length, however, Edom fell under the growing Chaldean power" "(Jer. 27:3, 6)." "There are many prophecies concerning Edom (Isa. 34:5, 6; Jer. 49:7-18; Ezek. 25:13; 35:1-15; Joel 3:19; Amos 1:11; Obad.; Mal. "1:3, 4) which have been remarkably fulfilled. The present" desolate condition of that land is a standing testimony to the inspiration of these prophecies. After an existence as a people "for above seventeen hundred years, they have utterly" "disappeared, and their language even is forgotten for ever. In" "Petra, "where kings kept their court, and where nobles" "assembled, there no man dwells; it is given by lot to birds, and" "beasts, and reptiles." "The Edomites were Semites, closely related in blood and in language to the Israelites. They dispossessed the Horites of "Mount Seir; though it is clear, from Gen. 36, that they" afterwards intermarried with the conquered population. Edomite "tribes settled also in the south of Judah, like the Kenizzites" "(Gen. 36:11), to whom Caleb and Othniel belonged (Josh. 15:17)." The southern part of Edom was known as Teman.

Mighty; strength. (1.) One of the chief towns of the kingdom of "Bashan (Josh. 12:4, 5). Here Og was defeated by the Israelites," and the strength of the Amorites broken (Num. 21:33-35). It "subsequently belonged to Manasseh, for a short time apparently," and afterwards became the abode of banditti and outlaws (Josh. "13:31). It has been identified with the modern Edr'a, which" stands on a rocky promontory on the south-west edge of the Lejah "(the Argob of the Hebrews, and Trachonitis of the Greeks). The" ruins of Edr'a are the most extensive in the Hauran. They are 3 miles in circumference. A number of the ancient houses still "remain; the walls, roofs, and doors being all of stone. The wild" region of which Edrei was the capital is thus described in its "modern aspect: "Elevated about 20 feet above the plain, it is a" "labyrinth of clefts and crevasses in the rock, formed by" "volcanic action; and owing to its impenetrable condition, it has" "become a refuge for outlaws and turbulent characters, who make" "it a sort of Cave of Adullam...It is, in fact, an impregnable" "natural fortress, about 20 miles in length and 15 in breadth" "(Porter's Syria, etc.). Beneath this wonderful city there is" "also a subterranean city, hollowed out probably as a refuge for" the population of the upper city in times of danger. (See [171]BASHAN.) "(2.) A town of Naphtali (Josh. 19:37).

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Definition of Ed: