Chapter 4

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1 So I returned, and considered all the oppressions that are done under the sun: and behold the tears of such as were oppressed, and they had no comforter; and on the side of their oppressors there was power; but they had no comforter.

2 Wherefore I praised the dead which are already dead more than the living which are yet alive.

3 Yea, better is he than both they, which hath not yet been, who hath not seen the evil work that is done under the sun.

4 Again, I considered all travail, and every right work, that for this a man is envied of his neighbour. This is also vanity and vexation of spirit.

5 The fool foldeth his hands together, and eateth his own flesh.

6 Better is an handful with quietness, than both the hands full with travail and vexation of spirit.

7 Then I returned, and I saw vanity under the sun.

8 There is one alone, and there is not a second; yea, he hath neither child nor brother: yet is there no end of all his labour; neither is his eye satisfied with riches; neither saith he, For whom do I labour, and bereave my soul of good? This is also vanity, yea, it is a sore travail.

9 Two are better than one; because they have a good reward for their labour.

10 For if they fall, the one will lift up his fellow: but woe to him that is alone when he falleth; for he hath not another to help him up.

11 Again, if two lie together, then they have heat: but how can one be warm alone?

12 And if one prevail against him, two shall withstand him; and a threefold cord is not quickly broken.

13 Better is a poor and a wise child than an old and foolish king, who will no more be admonished.

14 For out of prison he cometh to reign; whereas also he that is born in his kingdom becometh poor.

15 I considered all the living which walk under the sun, with the second child that shall stand up in his stead.

16 There is no end of all the people, even of all that have been before them: they also that come after shall not rejoice in him. Surely this also is vanity and vexation of spirit.

Commentary for Ecclesiastes 4

Miseries from oppression. (1-3) troubles from envy. (4-6) The folly of covetousness. (7,8) The advantages of mutual assistance. (9-12) the changes of royalty. (13-16)1-3 It grieved Solomon to see might prevail against right. Wherever we turn, we see melancholy proofs of the wickedness and misery of mankind, who try to create trouble to themselves and to each other. Being thus hardly used, men are tempted to hate and despise life. But a good man, though badly off while in this world, cannot have cause to wish he had never been born, since he is glorifying the Lord, even in the fires, and will be happy at last, for ever happy. Ungodly men have most cause to wish the continuance of life with all its vexations, as a far more miserable condition awaits them if they die in their sins. If human and worldly things were our chief good, not to exist would be preferable to life, considering the various oppressions here below.

4-6 Solomon notices the sources of trouble peculiar to well-doers, and includes all who labour with diligence, and whose efforts are crowned with success. They often become great and prosperous, but this excites envy and opposition. Others, seeing the vexations of an active course, foolishly expect more satisfaction in sloth and idleness. But idleness is a sin that is its own punishment. Let us by honest industry lay hold on the handful, that we may not want necessaries, but not grasp at both hands full, which would only create vexation of spirit. Moderate pains and gains do best.

7,8 Frequently, the more men have, the more they would have; and on this they are so intent, that they get no enjoyment from what they have. Selfishness is the cause of this evil. A selfish man cares for nobody; there is none to take care of but himself, yet he will scarcely allow necessary rest to himself, and the people he employs. He never thinks he has enough. He has enough for his calling, for his family, but he has not enough for his eyes. Many are so set upon the world, that in pursuit of it they bereave themselves, not only of the favour of God and eternal life, but of the pleasures of this life. The distant relations or strangers who inherit such a man's wealth, never thank him. Covetousness gathers strength by time and habit; men tottering on the brink of the grave, grow more grasping and griping. Alas, and how often do we see men professing to be followers of Him, who, "though he was rich, for our sakes became poor," anxiously scraping money together and holding it fast, excusing themselves by common-place talking about the necessity of care, and the danger of extravagance!

9-12 Surely he has more satisfaction in life, who labours hard to maintain those he loves, than the miser has in his toil. In all things union tends to success and safety, but above all, the union of Christians. They assist each other by encouragement, or friendly reproof. They warm each other's hearts while they converse together of the love of Christ, or join in singing his praises. Then let us improve our opportunities of Christian fellowship. In these things all is not vanity, though there will be some alloy as long as we are under the sun. Where two are closely joined in holy love and fellowship, Christ will by his Spirit come to them; then there is a threefold cord.

13-16 People are never long easy and satisfied; they are fond of changes. This is no new thing. Princes see themselves slighted by those they have studied to oblige; this is vanity and vexation of spirit. But the willing servants of the Lord Jesus, our King, rejoice in him alone, and they will love Him more and more to all eternity.

Commentary by Matthew Henry, 1710.

Discussion for Ecclesiastes 4

  • Williedean
    Two are better than one; because they have a good reward for their labor.

    For if they fall, the one will lift up his fellow, but woe to him that is alone when he falleth for he hath not another to help him up.

    Again, if two lie together, then they have heat, but how can one be warm alone?
  • BSP
    King Solomon wrote these words but unfortunately verse 13 applied to Solomon himself. He became an unwise old king because he stop listening to admonishment or warnings.
  • Jim
    A woman was made of man. Read the virtues of a good woman in Proverbs. A woman is not property. Paul writes that neither does a man have dominion over a woman nor a woman over the man but they are one flesh. While the man is the head of the woman, God is the head of them both.
  • Geraldine cole
    Gen.18.22.23.God made women for the man if u are not going by God plan u will have answere to God one day that the truth from the bible . .
  • Christopher
    God gives us all things in life and takes all things back, it 's not our place to know all but to try,and to be happy trying.It may not always be good times all the time but in the end of it all, life itself was and is worth it.
  • Deanna
    When i married my husband yesterday the pastor wrote dow a few verses to look up in the bible and i have his first was Ecclesiastes chapter 4 verses 9-12 and i couldn't believe it i now just how true it really is
  • Lanre for verse 1
    It is sad to be in this kind of situation but I believe that to be on God"s side will proffer lasting solution.
  • meditate on this scripture - Ecclesiastes 4:10. Love you
  • B J Manuel for verse 3
    It would be an error for anyone to imagine that this scripture was a defense for abortion. It is rather a comparison of the supposed bliss in the safety of a loving womb to the woes of living in the grown-up world. It was preferred to having seen and experienced suffering, sadness, grief and the evils of any time period. This verse was written before the dispensation of Christ, wherein is to be found "joy unspeakable and full of glory." Then again there is a cost attached to being a child of God in Christ Jesus and suffering is a particular cost. ". . . If any man suffer as a Christian let him not be ashamed but let him glorify God on this behalf." (1Peter 4:16) Maturity in Christ is something Solomon never had the pleasure of experiencing; We, on the other hand, can and by the grace of God will experience. The unborn are sacred but how much more so those persons who have come of age and been reborn in Christ Jesus to reside forever in Him.
  • Ngel Ukoh
    This chapter made us to understand that we the living should do the right thing at the right time in order to praise God because all these struggles under heaven are vanity upon vanity. We should be wise enough to understand the word of God.

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Bible Trivia

Why did the 'Preacher' of Ecclesiastes praise the dead more than the living?
  • No justice for the oppressed
  • He needed a nap
  • He was struck with an incurable disease
  • His wives were distressing him