"The name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the" "original capital of the country, was originally a colony from" "Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. It was a" "mountainous region lying to the north of Babylonia, extending" along the Tigris as far as to the high mountain range of "Armenia, the Gordiaean or Carduchian mountains. It was founded" "in B.C. 1700 under Bel-kap-kapu, and became an independent and a" "conquering power, and shook off the yoke of its Babylonian" masters. It subdued the whole of Northern Asia. The Assyrians "were Semites (Gen. 10:22), but in process of time non-Semite" tribes mingled with the inhabitants. They were a military "people, the "Romans of the East." "Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria little is "positively known. In B.C. 1120 Tiglath-pileser I., the greatest" "of the Assyrian kings, "crossed the Euphrates, defeated the" "kings of the Hittites, captured the city of Carchemish, and" "advanced as far as the shores of the Mediterranean." He may be" regarded as the founder of the first Assyrian empire. After this "the Assyrians gradually extended their power, subjugating the" "states of Northern Syria. In the reign of Ahab, king of Israel," "Shalmaneser II. marched an army against the Syrian states, whose" allied army he encountered and vanquished at Karkar. This led to Ahab's casting off the yoke of Damascus and allying himself with Judah. Some years after this the Assyrian king marched an army "against Hazael, king of Damascus. He besieged and took that" "city. He also brought under tribute Jehu, and the cities of Tyre" and Sidon. "About a hundred years after this (B.C. 745) the crown was seized "by a military adventurer called Pul, who assumed the name of" "Tiglath-pileser III. He directed his armies into Syria, which" "had by this time regained its independence, and took (B.C. 740)" "Arpad, near Aleppo, after a siege of three years, and reduced" "Hamath. Azariah (Uzziah) was an ally of the king of Hamath, and" thus was compelled by Tiglath-pileser to do him homage and pay a yearly tribute. "In B.C. 738, in the reign of Menahem, king of Israel, Pul "invaded Israel, and imposed on it a heavy tribute (2 Kings" "15:19). Ahaz, the king of Judah, when engaged in a war against" "Israel and Syria, appealed for help to this Assyrian king by" means of a present of gold and silver (2 Kings 16:8); who "accordingly "marched against Damascus, defeated and put Rezin to" "death, and besieged the city itself." Leaving a portion of his" "army to continue the siege, "he advanced through the province" "east of Jordan, spreading fire and sword," and became master of" "Philistia, and took Samaria and Damascus. He died B.C. 727, and" "was succeeded by Shalmanezer IV., who ruled till B.C. 722. He" "also invaded Syria (2 Kings 17:5), but was deposed in favour of" "Sargon (q.v.) the Tartan, or commander-in-chief of the army, who" "took Samaria (q.v.) after a siege of three years, and so put an" "end to the kingdom of Israel, carrying the people away into" "captivity, B.C. 722 (2 Kings 17:1-6, 24; 18:7, 9). He also" "overran the land of Judah, and took the city of Jerusalem (Isa." "10:6, 12, 22, 24, 34). Mention is next made of Sennacherib (B.C." "705), the son and successor of Sargon (2 Kings 18:13; 19:37;" "Isa. 7:17, 18); and then of Esar-haddon, his son and successor," "who took Manasseh, king of Judah, captive, and kept him for some" "time a prisoner at Babylon, which he alone of all the Assyrian" kings made the seat of his government (2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38). "Assur-bani-pal, the son of Esarhaddon, became king, and in Ezra 4:10 is referred to as Asnapper. From an early period Assyria "had entered on a conquering career, and having absorbed Babylon," "the kingdoms of Hamath, Damascus, and Samaria, it conquered" "Phoenicia, and made Judea feudatory, and subjected Philistia and" "Idumea. At length, however, its power declined. In B.C. 727 the" "Babylonians threw off the rule of the Assyrians, under the" leadership of the powerful Chaldean prince Merodach-baladan (2 "Kings 20:12), who, after twelve years, was subdued by Sargon," "who now reunited the kingdom, and ruled over a vast empire. But" on his death the smouldering flames of rebellion again burst "forth, and the Babylonians and Medes successfully asserted their" "independence (B.C. 625), and Assyria fell according to the" "prophecies of Isaiah (10:5-19), Nahum (3:19), and Zephaniah" "(3:13), and the many separate kingdoms of which it was composed" "ceased to recognize the "great king" (2 Kings 18:19; Isa. 36:4)." Ezekiel (31) attests (about B.C. 586) how completely Assyria was overthrown. It ceases to be a nation. (See [39]NINEVEH; [40]BABYLON.)

See where Assyria occurs in the Bible...

Definition of Assyria:
"country of Assur or Ashur"