Frequently mentioned throughout Scripture. Of the domesticated "species we read of, (1.) The she ass (Heb. `athon), so named" from its slowness (Gen. 12:16; 45:23; Num. 22:23; 1 Sam. 9:3). "(2.) The male ass (Heb. hamor), the common working ass of" "Western Asia, so called from its red colour. Issachar is" compared to a strong ass (Gen. 49:14). It was forbidden to yoke together an ass and an ox in the plough (Deut. 22:10). (3.) The "ass's colt (Heb. `air), mentioned Judg. 10:4; 12:14. It is" "rendered "foal" in Gen. 32:15; 49:11. (Comp. Job 11:12; Isa." "30:6.) The ass is an unclean animal, because it does not chew" the cud (Lev. 11:26. Comp. 2 Kings 6:25). Asses constituted a considerable portion of wealth in ancient times (Gen. 12:16; 30:43; 1 Chr. 27:30; Job 1:3; 42:12). They were noted for their spirit and their attachment to their master (Isa. 1:3). They are "frequently spoken of as having been ridden upon, as by Abraham" "(Gen. 22:3), Balaam (Num. 22:21), the disobedient prophet (1" "Kings 13:23), the family of Abdon the judge, seventy in number" "(Judg. 12:14), Zipporah (Ex. 4:20), the Shunammite (1 Sam." "25:30), etc. Zechariah (9:9) predicted our Lord's triumphal" "entrance into Jerusalem, "riding upon an ass, and upon a colt," "etc. (Matt. 21:5, R.V.)." "Of wild asses two species are noticed, (1) that called in Hebrew "'arod, mentioned Job 39:5 and Dan. 5:21, noted for its" "swiftness; and (2) that called pe're, the wild ass of Asia (Job" "39:6-8; 6:5; 11:12; Isa. 32:14; Jer. 2:24; 14:6, etc.). The wild" ass was distinguished for its fleetness and its extreme shyness. "In allusion to his mode of life, Ishmael is likened to a wild" "ass (Gen. 16:12. Here the word is simply rendered "wild" in the" "Authorized Version, but in the Revised Version, "wild-ass among" "men")."

Second son of Shem (Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17). He went from the "land of Shinar and built Nineveh, etc. (Gen. 10:11, 12). He" "probably gave his name to Assyria, which is the usual" "translation of the word, although the form Asshur is sometimes" "retained (Num. 24:22, 24; Ezek. 27:23, etc.). In Gen. 2:14" "Assyria ought to be "Asshur," which was the original capital" "of Assyria, a city represented by the mounds of Kalah Sherghat," on the west bank of the Tigris. This city was founded by Bel-kap-kapu about B.C. 1700. At a later date the capital was "shifted to Ninua, or Nineveh, now Koyunjik, on the eastern bank" of the river. (See [36]CALAH; [37]NINEVEH.)

"A sea-port town of Proconsular Asia, in the district of Mysia," on the north shore of the Gulf of Adramyttium. Paul came hither "on foot along the Roman road from Troas (Acts 20:13, 14), a" distance of 20 miles. It was about 30 miles distant from Troas "by sea. The island of Lesbos lay opposite it, about 7 miles" distant.

"The resurrection of Jesus (Acts 17:31) is the "assurance" (Gr." "pistis, generally rendered "faith") or pledge God has given that" "his revelation is true and worthy of acceptance. The "full" "assurance [Gr. plerophoria, `full bearing'] of faith" (Heb." 10:22) is a fulness of faith in God which leaves no room for "doubt. The "full assurance of understanding" (Col. 2:2) is an" entire unwavering conviction of the truth of the declarations of "Scripture, a joyful steadfastness on the part of any one of" "conviction that he has grasped the very truth. The "full" "assurance of hope" (Heb. 6:11) is a sure and well-grounded" "expectation of eternal glory (2 Tim. 4:7, 8). This assurance of" hope is the assurance of a man's own particular salvation. "This infallible assurance, which believers may attain unto as to "their own personal salvation, is founded on the truth of the" "promises (Heb. 6:18), on the inward evidence of Christian" "graces, and on the testimony of the Spirit of adoption (Rom." 8:16). That such a certainty may be attained appears from the "testimony of Scripture (Rom. 8:16; 1 John 2:3; 3:14), from the" "command to seek after it (Heb. 6:11; 2 Pet. 1:10), and from the" "fact that it has been attained (2 Tim. 1:12; 4:7, 8; 1 John 2:3;" 4:16). "This full assurance is not of the essence of saving faith. It is "the result of faith, and posterior to it in the order of nature," and so frequently also in the order of time. True believers may be destitute of it. Trust itself is something different from the "evidence that we do trust. Believers, moreover, are exhorted to" go on to something beyond what they at present have when they are exhorted to seek the grace of full assurance (Heb. 10:22; 2 "Pet. 1:5-10). The attainment of this grace is a duty, and is to" be diligently sought. "Genuine assurance naturally leads to a legitimate and abiding "peace and joy, and to love and thankfulness to God; and these" "from the very laws of our being to greater buoyancy, strength," and cheerfulness in the practice of obedience in every "department of duty." "This assurance may in various ways be shaken, diminished, and "intermitted, but the principle out of which it springs can never" be lost. (See [38]FAITH.)

"The name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the" "original capital of the country, was originally a colony from" "Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. It was a" "mountainous region lying to the north of Babylonia, extending" along the Tigris as far as to the high mountain range of "Armenia, the Gordiaean or Carduchian mountains. It was founded" "in B.C. 1700 under Bel-kap-kapu, and became an independent and a" "conquering power, and shook off the yoke of its Babylonian" masters. It subdued the whole of Northern Asia. The Assyrians "were Semites (Gen. 10:22), but in process of time non-Semite" tribes mingled with the inhabitants. They were a military "people, the "Romans of the East." "Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria little is "positively known. In B.C. 1120 Tiglath-pileser I., the greatest" "of the Assyrian kings, "crossed the Euphrates, defeated the" "kings of the Hittites, captured the city of Carchemish, and" "advanced as far as the shores of the Mediterranean." He may be" regarded as the founder of the first Assyrian empire. After this "the Assyrians gradually extended their power, subjugating the" "states of Northern Syria. In the reign of Ahab, king of Israel," "Shalmaneser II. marched an army against the Syrian states, whose" allied army he encountered and vanquished at Karkar. This led to Ahab's casting off the yoke of Damascus and allying himself with Judah. Some years after this the Assyrian king marched an army "against Hazael, king of Damascus. He besieged and took that" "city. He also brought under tribute Jehu, and the cities of Tyre" and Sidon. "About a hundred years after this (B.C. 745) the crown was seized "by a military adventurer called Pul, who assumed the name of" "Tiglath-pileser III. He directed his armies into Syria, which" "had by this time regained its independence, and took (B.C. 740)" "Arpad, near Aleppo, after a siege of three years, and reduced" "Hamath. Azariah (Uzziah) was an ally of the king of Hamath, and" thus was compelled by Tiglath-pileser to do him homage and pay a yearly tribute. "In B.C. 738, in the reign of Menahem, king of Israel, Pul "invaded Israel, and imposed on it a heavy tribute (2 Kings" "15:19). Ahaz, the king of Judah, when engaged in a war against" "Israel and Syria, appealed for help to this Assyrian king by" means of a present of gold and silver (2 Kings 16:8); who "accordingly "marched against Damascus, defeated and put Rezin to" "death, and besieged the city itself." Leaving a portion of his" "army to continue the siege, "he advanced through the province" "east of Jordan, spreading fire and sword," and became master of" "Philistia, and took Samaria and Damascus. He died B.C. 727, and" "was succeeded by Shalmanezer IV., who ruled till B.C. 722. He" "also invaded Syria (2 Kings 17:5), but was deposed in favour of" "Sargon (q.v.) the Tartan, or commander-in-chief of the army, who" "took Samaria (q.v.) after a siege of three years, and so put an" "end to the kingdom of Israel, carrying the people away into" "captivity, B.C. 722 (2 Kings 17:1-6, 24; 18:7, 9). He also" "overran the land of Judah, and took the city of Jerusalem (Isa." "10:6, 12, 22, 24, 34). Mention is next made of Sennacherib (B.C." "705), the son and successor of Sargon (2 Kings 18:13; 19:37;" "Isa. 7:17, 18); and then of Esar-haddon, his son and successor," "who took Manasseh, king of Judah, captive, and kept him for some" "time a prisoner at Babylon, which he alone of all the Assyrian" kings made the seat of his government (2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38). "Assur-bani-pal, the son of Esarhaddon, became king, and in Ezra 4:10 is referred to as Asnapper. From an early period Assyria "had entered on a conquering career, and having absorbed Babylon," "the kingdoms of Hamath, Damascus, and Samaria, it conquered" "Phoenicia, and made Judea feudatory, and subjected Philistia and" "Idumea. At length, however, its power declined. In B.C. 727 the" "Babylonians threw off the rule of the Assyrians, under the" leadership of the powerful Chaldean prince Merodach-baladan (2 "Kings 20:12), who, after twelve years, was subdued by Sargon," "who now reunited the kingdom, and ruled over a vast empire. But" on his death the smouldering flames of rebellion again burst "forth, and the Babylonians and Medes successfully asserted their" "independence (B.C. 625), and Assyria fell according to the" "prophecies of Isaiah (10:5-19), Nahum (3:19), and Zephaniah" "(3:13), and the many separate kingdoms of which it was composed" "ceased to recognize the "great king" (2 Kings 18:19; Isa. 36:4)." Ezekiel (31) attests (about B.C. 586) how completely Assyria was overthrown. It ceases to be a nation. (See [39]NINEVEH; [40]BABYLON.)

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