ELISHA HEALS NAAMAN THE SYRIAN’S LEPROSY, AND PUNISHES GEHAZI THEREWITH.
(1) Now.—The construction implies a break between this narrative and the preceding. Whether the events related belong to the time of Jehoram or of the dynasty of Jehu is not clear. Evidently it was a time of peace between Israel and Syria.
Naaman (beauty).—A title of the sun-god. (See Note on Isaiah 17:10.)
A great man with his master.—Literally, before his lord. (Comp. Genesis 10:9.)
Honourable.—In special favour. Literally, lifted up of face. (Comp. 2 Kings 3:14, Note; Isaiah 3:3.)
By him the Lord had given deliverance unto Syria.—Notice the high prophetic view that it is Jehovah, not Hadad or Rimmon, who gives victory to Syria as well as Israel. (Comp. Amos 9:7.) It is natural to think of the battle in which Ahab received his mortal wound (1 Kings 22:30, seq.). The Midrash makes Naaman the man who “drew the bow at a venture” on that occasion. The “deliverance” was victory over Israel.
He was also a mighty man in valour, but he was a leper.—Literally, and the man was a brave warrior, stricken with leprosy. His leprosy need not have been so severe as to incapacitate him for military duties. The victor over Israel is represented as a leper who has to seek, and finds, his only help in Israel (Thenius).
By companies.—Or, in troops, referring to a marauding incursion made at some time prior to the events here recorded.
Brought away captive . . . a little maid.—Comp. the reference in Joel 3:6 to the Phœnician traffic in Jewish slaves.
For he would recover him.—Then he would receive him back. (Comp. Numbers 12:14-15.) In Israel lepers were excluded from society. Restoration to society implied restoration to health. Hence the same verb came to be used in the sense of healing as well as of receiving back the leper. Thenius, however, argues that as the phrase “from leprosy” is wanting in Numbers 12, the real meaning is, “to take a person away from leprosy,” to which he had been, as it were, delivered up.
Thus and thus.—To avoid repetition of her actual words.
A letter.—Written, probably, in that old Aramean script of which we have examples on Assyrian seals of the eighth century B.C. , and which closely resembled the old Phœnician and Hebrew characters, as well as that of the Moabite stone (2 Kings 1:1, Note).
With him.—In his hand. (Comp. the expression “to fill the hand for Jehovah”—i.e., with presents; 1 Chronicles 29:5.)
Changes of raiment.—Or, holiday suits. Reuss, habits de fête. (See the same word, halîphôth, in Genesis 45:22.) Curiously enough, similar expressions (nahlaptum, hitlupatum) were used in the like sense by the Assyrians (Schrader).
Ten talents of silver.—About £3,750 in our money. The money talent was equivalent to sixty minas, the mina to fifty shekels. The shekel came to about 2 Samuel 6 d. of our money.
Six thousand pieces of gold.—Heb., six thousand (in) gold: i.e., six thousand gold shekels=two talents of gold, about £13,500. The gold shekel was worth about 45s. of our currency. The total sum appears much too large, and the numbers are probably corrupt, as is so often the case.
Am I God, to kill and to make alive?—Deuteronomy 32:39, “I kill, and I make alive;” 1 Samuel 2:6, “The Lord killeth, and maketh alive.” Leprosy was a kind of living death. (Comp. Numbers 12:12, Heb., “Let her not become as the dead, who, when he cometh forth of his mother’s womb, hath half his flesh consumed.”)
Wherefore.—Heb., For only know (i.e., notice), and see. Plural verbs are used, because the king is addressing his grandees, in whose presence the letter would be delivered and read.
He seeketh a quarrel.—This form of the verb (hithpael) occurs here only. (Comp. the noun, Judges 14:4.) Jehoram was hardly in a position to renew the war, after the severe defeat of his father (1 Kings 22:30, seq.).
When Elisha . . . had heard.—He was in Samaria at the time (2 Kings 5:3), and would hear of the coming of the great Syrian captain and of the king’s alarm. Why did not Jehoram think at once of Elisha? King and prophet were not on good terms with each other. (Comp. 2 Kings 3:14.) Besides, Elisha had not as yet done any miracle of this sort; and his apprehensions may have made the king unable, for the moment, to think at all.
Stood.—Stopped. The text hardly conveys, as Bähr thinks, the idea that Elisha’s house in Samaria was “a poor hovel,” which the great man would not deign to enter, but waited for the prophet to come forth to him. The prophet had “a messenger” (2 Kings 5:10) at his command.
Go.—Infinitive, equivalent to the imperative. (Comp. 2 Kings 3:16; and perhaps 2 Kings 4:43.)
Wash in (the) Jordan.—This command would make it clear that Naaman was not cured by any external means applied by the prophet. “The Syrians knew as well as the Israelites that the Jordan could not heal leprosy” (Bähr). Naaman was to understand that he was healed by the God of Israel, at His prophet’s prayer. (Comp. 2 Kings 5:15.)
Thy flesh shall come again to thee, and thou shalt be clean.—Literally, and let thy flesh come back to thee, and be thou clean. Leprosy is characterised by raw flesh and running sores, which end in entire wasting away of the tissues.
I thought.—I said to myself.
Strike his hand.—Rather, wave his hand towards the place. (Comp. Isaiah 10:15; Isaiah 11:15.) He would not touch the unclean place.
Recover the leper.—Or, take away the leprous (part). So Thenius; but everywhere else měçōrā‘ means “leprous man,” “leper” (Leviticus 14:2).
Pharpar.—Parpar (“the swift”), the present Nahr el-Awâj, which comes down from the great Hermon, and flows by Damascus on the south. Both rivers have clear water, as being mountain streams, whereas the Jordan is turbid and discoloured.
Rivers of Damascus.—Add the. Damascus is still famous for its wholesome water.
May I not wash in them, and be clean?—If mere washing in a river be enough, it were easy to do that at home, and to much better advantage.
My father.—A title implying at once respect and affection. (Comp. 1 Samuel 24:11; 2 Kings 6:21.) Perhaps, however, the word is a corruption of ’im (“if”), which is otherwise not expressed in the Hebrew.
Great thing.—Emphatic in the Hebrew.
Wouldest thou not have done?—Or,wouldest thou not do?
He saith.—He hath said.
Be clean?—i.e., thou shalt be clean: a common Hebrew idiom.
Seven times.—“Because seven was significant of the Divine covenant with Israel, and the cure depended on that covenant; or to stamp the cure as a Divine work, for seven is the signature of the works of God” (Keil). In the Assyrian monuments there is an almost exact parallel to the above method of seeking a cure. It occurs among the so-called exorcisms, and belongs to the age of Sargon of Agadê (Accad), before 2200 B.C. Merodach is represented as asking his father Hea how to cure a sick man. Hea replies that the sick man must go and bathe in the sacred waters at the mouth of the Euphrates. It thus appears that in bidding Naaman bathe seven times in the Jordan, Elisha acted in accordance with ancient Semitic belief as to the healing virtue of running streams.
Came.—Went in: into Elisha’s house. Gratitude overcame awe and dread.
Behold, now.—Behold, I pray thee. The “now” belongs to “behold,” not to “I know.”
I know that . . . in Israel.—Naaman, like most of his contemporaries, Jewish as well as Syriau, believed in locally restricted deities. The powerlessness of the Syrian gods and the potency of Jehovah having been brought home to his mind by his marvellous recovery, he concludes that there is no god anywhere save in the land of Israel. In other words, his local conception of deity still clings to him. What a mark of historic truth appears in this representation!
Now therefore.—And now.
Take a blessing of.—Accept a present from (Genesis 33:11).
I will receive none.—Theodoret compares our Lord’s “Freely ye have received, freely give” (Matthew 10:8). (Comp. Acts 8:20.) Such may have been Elisha’s feeling. His refusal, strongly contrasting with the conduct of ordinary prophets, Israelite and heathen (comp. 1 Samuel 9:6-9), would make a deep impression upon Naaman and his retinue.
Two mules’ burden of earth?—Literally, a load of a yoke of mules’ (in) earth. It was natural for Naaman, with his local idea of divinity, to make this request. He wished to worship the God of Israel, so far as possible, on the soil of Israel, Jehovah’s own land. He would therefore build his altar to Jehovah on a foundation of this earth, or construct the altar itself therewith. (Comp. Exodus 20:24; 1 Kings 18:38.)
Burnt offering nor sacrifice.—Burnt offering nor peace offering.
2 Kings 5:18In this thing the LORD pardon thy servant, that when my master goeth into the house of Rimmon to worship there, and he leaneth on my hand, and I bow myself in the house of Rimmon: when I bow down myself in the house of Rimmon, the LORD pardon thy servant in this thing.(18) In this thing.—Touching this thing (but in at the end of the verse). The LXX. and Syriac read, “and touching this thing,” an improvement in the connection.
To worship.—To bow down (the same verb occurs thrice in the verse).
The house of Rimmon.—The Assyrian Rammânu (from ramāmu, “to thunder”). One of his epithets in the cuneiform is Râmimu, “the thunderer;” and another is Barqu (=Bâriqu), “he who lightens.” Rimmon was the god of the atmosphere, called in Accadian, AN. IM (“god of the air or wind”), figured on bas-reliefs and cylinders as armed with the thunderbolt. His name is prominent in the story of the Flood (e.g., it is said Rammânu irmum, “Rimmon thundered”); and one of his standing titles is Râhiçu (“he who deluges”). The Assyrians identified Rammân with the Aramean and Edomite Hadad. (Comp. the name Hadad-rimmon, Zechariah 12:11; and Tabrimon, 1 Kings 15:18.) A list of no fewer than forty-one titles of Rimmon has been found among the cuneiform tablets.
Leaneth on my hand.—A metaphor denoting the attendance on the king by his favourite grandee or principal adjutant. (Comp. 2 Kings 7:2; 2 Kings 7:17.)
When I bow down myself.—An Aramaic form is used. The clause is omitted in some Hebrew MSS.
The Lord pardon thy servant.—Naaman had solemnly promised to serve no god but Jehovah for the future. He now prays that an unavoidable exception—which will, indeed, be such only in appearance—may be excused by Jehovah. His request is not, of course, to be judged by a Christian standard. By the reply, “Go in peace,” the prophet, as spokesman of Jehovah, acceded to Naaman’s prayer. “Naaman durst not profess conversion to the foreign cultus before the king, his master; so he asks leave to go on assisting at the national rites” (Reuss).
The Lord pardon.—In the current Hebrew text it is the Lord pardon, I pray. The LXX. appears to have had the same reading; but very many MSS. and all the other versions omit the precative particle. It is, however, probably genuine.
This Syrian.—He justifies his purpose on the principle of “spoiling the Egyptians.”
But, as the Lord liveth, I will run.—Rather, by the life of Jehovah, but I will run. (Comp. Note on 2 Kings 4:30.)
Is all well?—Naaman feared something might have befallen the prophet. The LXX. omits this.
Mount Ephraim.—The hill-country of Ephraim,or highlands of Ephraim, where Gilgal and Bethel were situate.
Changes of garments.—The same phrase as in 2 Kings 5:5.
Bags.—Only here and in Isaiah 3:22, where it means “purses.”
Laid them upon two.—Gave them to two of his (i.e., Naaman’s) young men. The courtesy of the act is obvious.
Bestowed them in the house.—Stowed them away, laid them up carefully in the (prophet’s) house. LXX., παρέθετο.
Let the men go.—Before he “bestowed” their burdens in the house.
Went in.—Into his master’s chamber. Gehazi was already in the house.
Stood before.—Came forward to (2 Chronicles 6:12).
Thy servant went no whither.—Literally, Thy servant went not away hither nor thither.
2 Kings 5:26And he said unto him, Went not mine heart with thee, when the man turned again from his chariot to meet thee? Is it a time to receive money, and to receive garments, and oliveyards, and vineyards, and sheep, and oxen, and menservants, and maidservants?(26) Went not mine heart . . . meet thee?—Rather, Nor did my heart (i.e., consciousness) go away, when a man turned (and alighted) from his chariot to meet thee. The prophet, in severe irony, adopts Gehazi’s own phrase: Maurer, “Non abierat animus meus;” “I was there in spirit, and witnessed everything.” The sentence has given the commentators much trouble. (See the elaborate Note in Thenius. We might have expected wĕlô, and w may have been omitted, owing to the preceding w; but it is not absolutely necessary.) The Authorised Version follows the LXX. (Vat.), which supplies the expression “with thee” (μετὰ σοῦ̑), wanting in the Hebrew text. The Targum paraphrases: “By the spirit of prophecy I was informed when the man turned,” &c. The Syriac follows with, “My heart informed me when the man turned,” &c.Is it a time to receive.—Comp. Ecclesiastes 3:2, seq. The LXX., pointing the Hebrew differently, reads: καὶ νῦν ἔλαβες τὸ ἀργύριον καὶ νῦν ἔλαβες τὰ ἱμάτια καὶ. (“And now thou receivedst the money,” &c.). So also the Vulg. and Arabic, but not the Targum and Syriac. Böttcher, retaining the interrogative particle of the Hebrew, adopts this: “Didst thou then take the money?” &c. But the Masoretic pointing appears to be much more suitable. The prophet’s question comes to this: “Was that above all others a proper occasion for yielding to your desire of gain, when you were dealing with a heathen? Ought you not to have been studiously disinterested in your behaviour to such an one, that he might learn not to confound the prophets of Jehovah with the mercenary diviners and soothsayers of the false gods?” The prophet’s disciple is bound, like his master, to seek, not worldly power, but spiritual; for the time is one of ardent struggle against the encroachments of paganism.And oliveyards . . . maidservants?—The prophet develops Gehazi’s object in asking for the money: he wished to purchase lands, and live stock, and slaves—whatever constituted the material wealth of the time. The Targum inserts the explanatory: “And thou thoughtest in thy heart to purchase oliveyards,” &c. So Vulg.: “ut emas oliveta.”
2 Kings 5:27The leprosy therefore of Naaman shall cleave unto thee, and unto thy seed for ever. And he went out from his presence a leper as white as snow.(27) Shall cleave.—Or, cleave! i.e., let it cleave. The prophetic sentence is naturally expressed as an imperative.A leper as white as snow.—Comp. Exodus 4:6 Numbers 12:10. A sudden outbreak of leprosy may follow upon extreme fright or mortification (Michaelis).Unto thy seed for ever.—Like other skin diseases, leprosy is hereditary. If it be thought that the sentence is too strong, it should be remembered that the prophet is really pronouncing inspired judgment upon the sin of Gehazi, and milder language might have produced erroneous impressions. Covetousness and lying are never spared in Scripture, and it is well for mankind that it is so. (Comp. Acts 5)
Is it a time to receive.—Comp. Ecclesiastes 3:2, seq. The LXX., pointing the Hebrew differently, reads: καὶ νῦν ἔλαβες τὸ ἀργύριον καὶ νῦν ἔλαβες τὰ ἱμάτια καὶ. (“And now thou receivedst the money,” &c.). So also the Vulg. and Arabic, but not the Targum and Syriac. Böttcher, retaining the interrogative particle of the Hebrew, adopts this: “Didst thou then take the money?” &c. But the Masoretic pointing appears to be much more suitable. The prophet’s question comes to this: “Was that above all others a proper occasion for yielding to your desire of gain, when you were dealing with a heathen? Ought you not to have been studiously disinterested in your behaviour to such an one, that he might learn not to confound the prophets of Jehovah with the mercenary diviners and soothsayers of the false gods?” The prophet’s disciple is bound, like his master, to seek, not worldly power, but spiritual; for the time is one of ardent struggle against the encroachments of paganism.
And oliveyards . . . maidservants?—The prophet develops Gehazi’s object in asking for the money: he wished to purchase lands, and live stock, and slaves—whatever constituted the material wealth of the time. The Targum inserts the explanatory: “And thou thoughtest in thy heart to purchase oliveyards,” &c. So Vulg.: “ut emas oliveta.”
A leper as white as snow.—Comp. Exodus 4:6 Numbers 12:10. A sudden outbreak of leprosy may follow upon extreme fright or mortification (Michaelis).
Unto thy seed for ever.—Like other skin diseases, leprosy is hereditary. If it be thought that the sentence is too strong, it should be remembered that the prophet is really pronouncing inspired judgment upon the sin of Gehazi, and milder language might have produced erroneous impressions. Covetousness and lying are never spared in Scripture, and it is well for mankind that it is so. (Comp. Acts 5)