1 Be yee followers of mee, euen as I also am of Christ.
2 Now I prayse you, brethren, that you remember me in all things, and keepe the ordinances, as I deliuered them to you.
3 But I would haue you knowe, that the head of euery man is Christ: and the head of the woman is the man, and the head of Christ is God.
4 Euery man praying or prophecying, hauing his head couered, dishonoureth his head.
5 But euery woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her head vncouered, dishonoureth her head: for that is euen all one as if she were shauen.
6 For if the woman be not couered, let her also bee shorne: but if it bee a shame for a woman to be shorne or shauen, let her be couered.
7 For a man in deede ought not to couer his head, forasmuch as hee is the image and glory of God: but the woman is the glory of the man.
8 For the man is not of the woman: but the woman of the man.
9 Neither was the man created for the woman: but the woman for the man.
10 For this cause ought the woman to haue power on her head, because of the Angels.
11 Neuerthelesse, neither is the man without the woman, neither the woman without the man in the Lord.
12 For as the woman is of the man: euen so is the man also by the woman; but all things of God.
13 Iudge in your selues, is it comely that a woman pray vnto God vncouered?
14 Doeth not euen nature it selfe teach you, that if a man haue long haire, it is a shame vnto him?
15 But if a woman haue long haire, it is a glory to her: for her haire is giuen her for a couering.
16 But if any man seeme to be contentious, we haue no such custome, neither the Churches of God.
17 Now in this that I declare vnto you, I praise you not, that you come together not for the better, but for the worse.
18 For first of all when yee come together in the Church, I heare that there be diuisions among you, and I partly beleeue it.
19 For there must bee also heresies among you, that they which are approued may be made manifest among you.
20 When yee come together therefore into one place, this is not to eate the Lords Supper.
21 For in eating, euery one taketh before other, his owne supper: and one is hungry, and an other is drunken.
22 What, haue ye not houses to eate and to drinke in? Or despise yee the Church of God, and shame them that haue not? What shall I say to you? shall I praise you in this? I prayse you not.
23 For I haue receiued of the Lord that which also I deliuered vnto you, that the Lord Iesus, the same night in which he was betrayed, tooke bread:
24 And when he had giuen thanks, he brake it, and sayd, Take, eate, this is my body, which is broken for you: this doe in remembrance of mee.
25 After the same manner also hee tooke the cup when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new Testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drinke it, in remembrance of me.
26 For as often as ye eate this bread, and drinke this cup, yee doe shew the Lords death till he come.
27 Wherefore, whosoeuer shall eate this bread, and drinke this cup of the Lord vnworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord.
28 But let a man examine himselfe, and so let him eate of that bread, and drinke of that cup.
29 For hee that eateth and drinketh vnworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himselfe, not discerning the Lords body.
30 For this cause many are weake and sickly among you, and many sleepe.
31 For if we would iudge our selues, we should not be iudged.
32 But when we are iudged, we are chastened of the Lord, that wee should not be condemned with the world.
33 Wherefore my brethren, when ye come together to eate, tary one for another.
34 And if any man hunger, let him eate at home, that ye come not together vnto condemnation. And the rest wil I set in order, when I come.
The apostle, after an exhortation to follow him, (1) corrects some abuses. (2-16) Also contentions, divisions, and disorderly celebrations of the Lord's supper. (17-22) He reminds them of the nature and design of its institution. (23-26) And directs how to attend upon it in a due manner. (27-34)1 The first verse of this chapter seems properly to be the close to the last. The apostle not only preached such doctrine as they ought to believe, but led such a life as they ought to live. Yet Christ being our perfect example, the actions and conduct of men, as related in the Scriptures, should be followed only so far as they are like to his.
2-16 Here begin particulars respecting the public assemblies, ch. #1Co 14|. In the abundance of spiritual gifts bestowed on the Corinthians, some abuses had crept in; but as Christ did the will, and sought the honour of God, so the Christian should avow his subjection to Christ, doing his will and seeking his glory. We should, even in our dress and habit, avoid every thing that may dishonour Christ. The woman was made subject to man, because made for his help and comfort. And she should do nothing, in Christian assemblies, which looked like a claim of being equal. She ought to have "power," that is, a veil, on her head, because of the angels. Their presence should keep Christians from all that is wrong while in the worship of God. Nevertheless, the man and the woman were made for one another. They were to be mutual comforts and blessings, not one a slave, and the other a tyrant. God has so settled matters, both in the kingdom of providence and that of grace, that the authority and subjection of each party should be for mutual help and benefit. It was the common usage of the churches, for women to appear in public assemblies, and join in public worship, veiled; and it was right that they should do so. The Christian religion sanctions national customs wherever these are not against the great principles of truth and holiness; affected singularities receive no countenance from any thing in the Bible.
17-22 The apostle rebukes the disorders in their partaking of the Lord's supper. The ordinances of Christ, if they do not make us better, will be apt to make us worse. If the use of them does not mend, it will harden. Upon coming together, they fell into divisions, schisms. Christians may separate from each other's communion, yet be charitable one towards another; they may continue in the same communion, yet be uncharitable. This last is schism, rather than the former. There is a careless and irregular eating of the Lord's supper, which adds to guilt. Many rich Corinthians seem to have acted very wrong at the Lord's table, or at the love-feasts, which took place at the same time as the supper. The rich despised the poor, and ate and drank up the provisions they brought, before the poor were allowed to partake; thus some wanted, while others had more than enough. What should have been a bond of mutual love and affection, was made an instrument of discord and disunion. We should be careful that nothing in our behaviour at the Lord's table, appears to make light of that sacred institution. The Lord's supper is not now made an occasion for gluttony or revelling, but is it not often made the support of self-righteous pride, or a cloak for hypocrisy? Let us never rest in the outward forms of worship; but look to our hearts.
23-34 The apostle describes the sacred ordinance, of which he had the knowledge by revelation from Christ. As to the visible signs, these are the bread and wine. What is eaten is called bread, though at the same time it is said to be the body of the Lord, plainly showing that the apostle did not mean that the bread was changed into flesh. St. Matthew tells us, our Lord bid them all drink of the cup, ch. #Mt 26:27|, as if he would, by this expression, provide against any believer being deprived of the cup. The things signified by these outward signs, are Christ's body and blood, his body broken, his blood shed, together with all the benefits which flow from his death and sacrifice. Our Saviour's actions were, taking the bread and cup, giving thanks, breaking the bread, and giving both the one and the other. The actions of the communicants were, to take the bread and eat, to take the cup and drink, and to do both in remembrance of Christ. But the outward acts are not the whole, or the principal part, of what is to be done at this holy ordinance. Those who partake of it, are to take him as their Lord and Life, yield themselves up to him, and live upon him. Here is an account of the ends of this ordinance. It is to be done in remembrance of Christ, to keep fresh in our minds his dying for us, as well as to remember Christ pleading for us, in virtue of his death, at God's right hand. It is not merely in remembrance of Christ, of what he has done and suffered; but to celebrate his grace in our redemption. We declare his death to be our life, the spring of all our comforts and hopes. And we glory in such a declaration; we show forth his death, and plead it as our accepted sacrifice and ransom. The Lord's supper is not an ordinance to be observed merely for a time, but to be continued. The apostle lays before the Corinthians the danger of receiving it with an unsuitable temper of mind; or keeping up the covenant with sin and death, while professing to renew and confirm the covenant with God. No doubt such incur great guilt, and so render themselves liable to spiritual judgements. But fearful believers should not be discouraged from attending at this holy ordinance. The Holy Spirit never caused this scripture to be written to deter serious Christians from their duty, though the devil has often made this use of it. The apostle was addressing Christians, and warning them to beware of the temporal judgements with which God chastised his offending servants. And in the midst of judgement, God remembers mercy: he many times punishes those whom he loves. It is better to bear trouble in this world, than to be miserable for ever. The apostle points our the duty of those who come to the Lord's table. Self-examination is necessary to right attendance at this holy ordinance. If we would thoroughly search ourselves, to condemn and set right what we find wrong, we should stop Divine judgements. The apostle closes all with a caution against the irregularities of which the Corinthians were guilty at the Lord's table. Let all look to it, that they do not come together to God's worship, so as to provoke him, and bring down vengeance on themselves.
Commentary by Matthew Henry, 1710.