1 Timothy 4 COMMENTARY (Pulpit)

1 Timothy 4
Pulpit Commentary
Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils;
Verse 1. - But for now, A.V.; saith for speaketh, A.V.; later for the latter, A.V.; fall away for depart, A.V. The Spirit saith expressly (ῤητῶς); only here in the New Testament, and very rare in classical Greek. But the adjective ῤητός, in the sense of something "laid down," "definite.... expressly mentioned," is common. It was, doubtless, on account of these prophetic warnings of a falling away from the faith, that the apostle gave the preceding heads of Christian doctrine in such a terse and tangible form, and laid such a solemn charge upon Timothy. (For examples of these prophetic utterances, see Acts 11:28; Acts 13:2; Acts 20:23; Acts 21:11; 1 Corinthians 12:8; 1 Corinthians 14. '30, 32, etc.) Shall fall away (ἀποστησονται). So St. Paul says (2 Thessalonians 2:3) that the day of Christ will not be, "except the falling away (ἡ ἀποστασία) come first" (comp. Hebrews 3:12). The faith; objective (see 1 Timothy 3:9 and 16, note). This "falling away" is to take place ἐν ὑστέροις καιροῖς; not, as in the R.V., in "later times," but as in the A.V., "the latter times." The adjective ὕστερος is only found here in the New Testament. But in the LXX. (e.g., 1 Chronicles 29:29; Jeremiah 1:19; Jeremiah 27:17, LXX.), ὕστερος means "the last," as opposed to "the first." And so the adverb ὕστερον always in the New Testament (see Matthew 4:2; Matthew 21:37; Matthew 26:60; or more fully ὕστερον πάντεν, 22:27). Here, therefore, ἐν ὑστεροις καιροῖς is equivalent to ἐν ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις (Acts 2:17) and ἐν ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις (2 Timothy 3:1; comp. James 5:3; 1 Peter 1:5; 2 Peter 3:3; Jude 1:18). It should be observed that in all these passages there is no article. Giving heed (προσέχοντες); as in ver. 13; in 1 Timothy 1:4; Titus 1:14; Acts 8:6, and elsewhere. Seducing spirits (πνεύμασι πλάνοις). Such were the "lying spirits" who deceived (ἠπάτησαν) Ahab to his destruction (2 Kings 22:22). Πλάνος, seducing, is not elsewhere found in the New Testament as an adjective (see Matthew 27:63; 2 Corinthians 6:8 2 John 7, in all which places, however, it is almost an adjective). The idea is "causing to wander," or "go astray." St. John warns his people against such deceiving spirits (John 4:1-6). He calls them generically πνεύμα τῆς πλάνης, "the spirit of error." Doctrines of devils; i.e. teachings suggested by devils. So the unbelieving Jews suggested that John the Baptist had a devil (Luke 7:33), and that our Lord himself had a devil (John 7:20; John 8:48, 52; John 10:19).
Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron;
Verse 2. - Through the hypocrisy of men that speak lies for speaking lies in hypocrisy, A.V.; branded in their own conscience as with for having their conscience seared with, A.V. Through the hypocrisy of men, etc. The construction is rather obscure, as the most obvious way of construing is that of the A.V., where ψευδόλογων must agree with δαιμονίων. But then the clause, "having their conscience seared with a hot iron," does not suit "devils." It is therefore, perhaps, best to translate the clause as the R.V. does, and to explain, with Bishop Ellicott, that the preposition ἐν, which precedes ὑποκρίσει, defines the instrument by which they were led to give heed to seducing spirits, viz. the hypocritical preterites of the men who spake lies, and whose consciences were seared. If ψευδολόγων agrees with δαιμονίων, we must conceive that St. Paul passes insensibly from "the devils" to the false teachers who spake as they taught them. In the Gospels, the speech of the devils, and of those possessed by devils, is often interchanged, as e.g., Luke 4:33, 34, 41; Mark 1:23, 24. Men that speak lies (ψευδολόγω); only found here in the New Testament, but occasionally in classical Greek. Branded (κεκαυτηριασμένων); here only in the New Testament, but used in Greek medical and other writers for "to brand," or "cauterize;" καυτήρ and καυτήριον, a branding-iron. The application of the image is somewhat uncertain. If the idea is that of "a brand," a mark burnt in upon the forehead of a slave or criminal, then the meaning is that these men have their own infamy stamped upon their own consciences. It is not patent only to others, but to themselves also. But if the metaphor is from the cauterizing a wound, as the A.V. takes it, then the idea is that these men's consciences are become as insensible to the touch as the skin that has been cauterized is. The metaphor, in this case, is somewhat similar to that of πωρόω πώρωσις (Mark 3:5; Mark 6:52; John 12:40, etc.). The latter interpretation seems to suit the general context best, and the medical use of the term, which St. Paul might have learnt from Luke. The emphasis of τῆς ἰδίας, "their own conscience," implies that they were not merely deceivers of others, but were self-deceived.
Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth.
Verse 3. - Created for hath created, A.V.; by for of, A.V.; that for which, A.V. Forbidding to marry. This is mentioned as showing itself first among the Essenes and Therapeutic by Josephus ('Bell. Jud.,' it. 8:2, and 'Ant. Jud.,' 18, 1:5). It became later a special tenet of the Gnostics, as stated by Clem. Alex., 'Strom.,' 3:6; Irenaeus, "Haer.," 1:22, etc. (quoted by Ellicott). See other quotations in Pole's Synopsis. Commanding to abstain from meats; βρωμάτων (1 Corinthians 8:8; Hebrews 9:10; comp. βρώσει, Colossians 2:16; Romans 14:17). The word "commanding" has to be supplied from the preceding κωλυόντων, "commanding not." Some of the sects prohibited the use of animal food. A trace of this asceticism in regard to food is found in Colossians 2:16, 21, 23. (For a full list of authorities on the asceticism of the Jewish sects, see Bishop Lightfoot, 'Introduction to the Epistle to the Coloss.,' pp. 83, 84.) The chief passages relating to it are those referred to above from Josephus: Γάμου ὑπεροψία παρ αὐτοῖς, "They despise marriage;" Ἐσσαίων οὐδεὶς ἄγεται γυναῖκα, "None of the Essenes marry" (Philo, 'Fragm.,' p. 633); "Gens sine ulla femina, venere abdicata" - "A people without a single woman, for they renounce marriage" (Plin., 'Nat. Hist.,' 5:15). As regards their food, Bishop Lightfoot says, "The Essene drank no wine; he did not touch animal food. His meal consisted of a piece of bread, and a single mess of vegetables" ('Introd.,' p. 86). Professor Burton (in Kitto's 'Cyclopaedia,' art. "Gnosticism') says of the later Gnostics that, from their principle of the utter malignity of matter, and the elevating nature of γνῶσις, two very opposite results ensued - one that many Gnostics led very profligate lives; the other that many practiced great austerities in order to mortify the body and its sensual appetites (p. 770). Some of our modern Eneratites, in their language concerning the use of wine and beer, approach Gnosticism very closely. To be received (εἰς μετάληψιν); a classical word, but only found here in the New Testament, not used by the LXX. With thanksgiving. Observe the identity of thought with Romans 14:6. These passages, together with our Lord's action at the last Supper (Luke 22:17, 19), at the multiplication of the loaves and fishes (Luke 9:16), and St. Paul's on board ship (Acts 27:35), are conclusive as to the Christian duty of giving thanks, commonly called "saying grace" at meals. The truth (see 1 Timothy 3:15; John 18:37; Ephesians 4:21, etc.).
For every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving:
Verse 4. - Is to be rejected for to be refused, A.V. Nothing is to be rejected. The A.V., "nothing to be refused," manifestly uses "nothing" in its adverbial sense ("in no degree," "not at all," Johnson's 'Dict.'), as οὐδέν in Greek is also commonly used (Liddell and Scott). In fact, it is very difficult to construe the passage as the R.V. does. To say "nothing is to be rejected if it is received," is scarcely sense. But to say that every creature of God is good (and on that account not to be rejected) if it is received with thanksgiving is very good and edifying sense. Creature (κτίσμα). The form commonly used by St. Paul is κτίσις (Romans 8:20, 21, 22; 2 Corinthians 5:17, etc.). But κτίσμα stands by the side of κτίσις, like βρῶμα by the side of βρῶσις ὅραμα by the side of ὅρασις πόμα by the side of πόσις, and many more. The form κτίσμα ισ found in James 1:18; and twice in Revelation. Good (καλόν); with reference to Genesis 1:10, 12, etc. To be refused (ἀπόβλητον); only here in the New Testament, but found in classical Greek, and not uncommon in the LXX. and other Greek versions, for that which is "unclean," or "abominable." If it be received with thanksgiving. This clearly refers to "every creature of God," and is the condition on which it is good in relation to the receiver. Nothing can be clearer or more certain than that the apostle is not arguing against the Manichean doctrine of the evil of matter, or the works of the Demiurge, but against Jewish scruples about meats. "Every creature of God," he says, "is good" - words which would have no force if the creatures in question were not admitted to be the works of God, but thought to be the works of the Demiurge. But applied to the Jewish scruples, the words are perfectly relevant. Every creature of God is good, and on no account to be treated as common or unclean (Acts 10:15, 28), provided only that it be received with thanksgiving.
For it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer.
Verse 5. - Through for by, A.V. It is sanctified through the Word of God. Considerable difference of opinion prevails among commentators as to the precise meaning of this verse, especially of the phrase, "the Word of God." Some refer to Gem 1:4, 10, 12, etc.; others to Genesis 1:29; Genesis 9:4, as containing the original grant of meats for the use of man; others to the scriptural phrases embodied in the words of the ἐντεύξις, the prayer of thanksgiving. Another possible reference would be to the Word of God recorded in Acts 10:13, 15, 28, by which that which had previously been unclean was now made clean or holy; or, lastly, it might mean "the blessing of God" given in answer to the "prayer" on each occasion, which suits well the present tense, ἁγιάζετι. Prayer (ἐντευξις; see 1 Timothy 2:1, note).
If thou put the brethren in remembrance of these things, thou shalt be a good minister of Jesus Christ, nourished up in the words of faith and of good doctrine, whereunto thou hast attained.
Verse 6. - Mind for remembrance, A.V.; Christ Jesus for Jesus Christ, A.V. and T.R.; nourished for nourished up, A.V.; the faith for faith, A.V.; the good for good, A.V.; which thou hast followed until now for whereunto thou hast attained, A.V. If thou put the brethren in mind of these things (παῦτα ὑποτιθέμενος τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς); if thou suggest these things to the brethren, lay them down as principles upon which their conduct is to be based; or, enjoin them (Liddell and Scott). It only occurs in this metaphorical sense here in the New Testament, but is very common in classical Greek, and not infrequent in the LXX. It has often the meaning of "to advise" or" counsel." Of course, "hypothesis," the assumed basis from which you start, is the same root. The brethren (τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς). The distinctive name for the members of Christ's Church, throughout the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles. The whole body is called ἡ ἀδελφότης "the brotherhood" (1 Peter 2:17; 1 Peter 5:9). A good minister (διάκονος). The application of this term to Timothy, like that of ἐπίσκοπος to presbyters (1 Timothy 3:2), is an indication of the early date of the Epistle, before the distinctive names of the Church officers had quite hardened down into a technical meaning. Nourished (ἀντρεφόμενος); here only in the New Testament, and not used in the LXX.; but in classical Greek not uncommon in the sense of "brought up in," "trained in from childhood." In Latin, innutritus. The phrase, "nourished in the words of the faith," etc., explains the καλὸς διάκονος, and shows what a man must be to deserve the appellation - one, viz., who is nourished in the words of the faith, etc. The faith; here again objective, as in ver. 6 (see note). The good doctrine, etc. In opposition to the "doctrines of devils" in ver. 1. The different epithets of this true Christian doctrine are ἡ καλή (as here); ὑγιαίνουσα (1 Timothy 1:10; Titus 1:9; Titus 2:1); ἡ κατ εὐσεβείαν διδασκαλία (1 Timothy 6:3); and in 1 Timothy 6. I we have simply ηδιδασκαλία, without any epithet. In like manner, ἡ πίστις ἡ, ἀληθεία ἡ εὐσεβεία, severally denote the Christian religion. Which thou hast followed until now (η΅ι παρηκολουθήκας). This is a rather more faithful rendering than that of the A.V.; it is, literally, which thou hast kept close to, either for the purpose of imitating it, or, as 2 Timothy 3:10, for the purpose of observing it. Or, to put it differently, in one case so as to teach it identically, and in the other so as to know it perfectly. In this last aspect it is also used in Luke 1:3. The classical use is "to follow closely any one's steps," or "the course of events," when used literally; or, metaphorically, "to follow with one's thoughts," "to understand."
But refuse profane and old wives' fables, and exercise thyself rather unto godliness.
Verse 7. - Unto godliness for rather unto godliness, A.V. The R.V., by putting a full stop after "fables," disturbs the natural flow of the thought. The two imperatives παραιτοῦ and γύμναζε connect and contrast the thoughts in the two clauses of the verse, as the A.V. indicates by the insertion of "rather." Profane (βεβήλους; 1 Timothy 1:9, note) Old wives' (γράωδεις); only here in the New Testament; not used in LXX.; rare in classical Greek. Exercise thyself unto godliness (γύμναζε σευτόν). The verb γυμνάζειν occurs in the New Testament only in this place, twice in the Epistle to the Hebrews (Hebrews 5:14; 12:11), and once in 2 Peter (2 Peter 2:14). In the LXX. it occurs only once (2 Macc. 10:15), but is common in classical Greek. The metaphor is drawn from training for gymnastic exercises. As regards the whole passage, it seems that there were current among the Jews at this time many "fables" (1 Timothy 1:4; 2 Timothy 4:4; Titus 1:14; 2 Peter 1:16), childish legends and doctrines, some of them directed especially to enforcing certain rules about eating and drinking, and other "bodily exercises," which St. Paul utterly discountenances, and contrasts with that "good doctrine" which he directs Timothy continually to teach. This would account, naturally, for the introduction of the phrase, γύμναζε σεαυτόν.
For bodily exercise profiteth little: but godliness is profitable unto all things, having promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come.
Verse 8. - Is profitable for a little for profiteth little, A.V.; for, for unto, A.V.; which for that, A.V. Bodily exercise. Exercise which only affects the body, such as those rules which the Jewish ascetics enforced. Γυμνασία only occurs here in the New Testament, and not at all in the LXX., but is not uncommon in classical Greek. Another form is γύμνασις, and γυμνάσιον is the place where such γύμνασις takes place. For a little; margin, for little, which is the best rendering, Πρὸς ὀλίγον, as Ellicott well remarks, may mean either "for a little while" or "for a little" (better, "for little"), but cannot mean both. The contrast with πρὸς πάντα determines its meaning here to be "for little," which is exactly the same meaning as the A.V. Promise of the life. The genitive here is the genitive of the thing promised, as in Acts 2:33; Galatians 3:14; 2 Timothy 1:1. And the thing promised is "the life that now is," meaning, of course, its enjoyment in peace and happiness (comp. Psalm 34:12 [33, LXX]., where θέλων ζωήν is parallel to ἀγαπῶν ἡμέρας... ἀγαθάς); and "that which is to come," viz. eternal life). There is no occasion to strain after greater grammatical precision. There is no contradiction between tiffs statement of the happiness of a godly life and St. Paul's statement in 1 Corinthians 15:19. Another possible way of construing the words is that of Bishop Ellicott and the 'Speaker's Commentary:' "Having the promise of life, both the present and the future." But in this case we should have had τῆς τε νῦν καὶ κ.τ.λ.
This is a faithful saying and worthy of all acceptation.
Verse 9. - Faithful is the saying for this is a faithful saying, A.V. (1 Timothy 1:15, note). Here, however, the πιστὸς λόγος is that which precedes, viz. that "godliness is profitable for all things," etc., which we thus learn was a proverbial saying.
For therefore we both labour and suffer reproach, because we trust in the living God, who is the Saviour of all men, specially of those that believe.
Verse 10. - To this end for therefore, A.V.; labor and strive for both labor and suffer reproach, A.V. and T.R.; have our hope set on for trust in, A.V.; them for those, A.V. For to this end; or, with this in view. He thus justifies his assertion that the saying he had quoted is a faithful one, by showing that the promise and all that it contained was the ground of all his labors and those of his fellow-laborers in the gospel. Strive (ἀγωνιζόμεθα); so many good manuscripts, instead of T.R. ὀνειδιζόμεθα; but the reading is doubtful. The sense of the T.R., "suffer reproach," seems preferable, and the expression more forcible, as conveying something more than mere labor - the bitter reproaches and persecutions which he endured (2 Timothy 3:11; 1 Corinthians 4:9-13; 2 Corinthians 11:23-27); and all because of his firm trust in the promises of the living God. Our hope set on. Rather a clumsy phrase, though it expresses accurately the ἠλπίκαμεν ἐπὶ Θεῷ ζῶντι; but it was hardly worth altering the A.V., "we trust in the living God." In 1 Timothy 5:5 we have ἤλπικεν ἐπὶ Θεόν, with no appreciable difference of sense. Specially of them that believe; and therefore we who believe have special cause to hope in him, and to trust his promises.
These things command and teach.
Verse 11. - Command (παράγγελλε; see 1 Timothy 1:3, note; 1 Timothy 5:7; 6:13, 17). It is used very frequently in the Gospels of our Lord's commands to the apostles and others, and by St. Paul of his own apostolic directions to the Churches (1 Thessalonians 4:11; 2 Thessalonians 3:4, 6, etc.).
Let no man despise thy youth; but be thou an example of the believers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in purity.
Verse 12. - An ensample to them that believe for an example of the believers, A.V.; manner of fife for conversation, A.V.; love for charity, A.V.; R.T. omits in spirit, A.V. and T.R. Let no man despise thy youth (comp. 1 Corinthians 16:11; Titus 2:15). The construction of the sentence is manifestly that adopted in the A.V. and followed in the R.V. Timothy would certainly be under forty years at this time, and might be not above thirty-five. Either age would be decidedly early for so responsible an office - one in which he would have many elders (πρεσβύτεροι) under him (1 Timothy 5:1, 17, 19). An ensample (τύπος); properly the original "pattern" or "model" after which anything is made or fashioned; hence a "pattern" or "example." It is used in the same sense as here in Philippians 3:17; I These. 1:7; 2 Thessalonians 3:9; Titus 2:7; 1 Peter 5:3. Them that believe. The R.V. has apparently so translated τῶν πιστῶν in order to assimilate it with the πιστῶν in ver. 10. But οἱ πιστοί are simply "believers," or "Christians" - "the flock," as St. Peter has it, and had better be so rendered. Timothy is exhorted to make it impossible for any one to question his authority on the score of his youth by being a model of the Christian graces required in believers. In word. Specially in his teaching. The exhortation to Titus (Titus 2:1, 7, etc.) is very similar, "Speak thou the things which befit the sound doctrine. In all things showing thyself an ensample of good works; in thy doctrine showing uncorrupt-ness, gravity, sound speech (λόγον ὑγιῆ)" etc. (comp. too 1 Timothy 5:17; 2 Timothy 1:13). Manner of life (ἀναστροφῇ; see 1 Timothy 3:15, note). Purity (ἁγνείᾳ); elsewhere in the New Testament only in 1 Timothy 5:2, where it has the same special sense (compare ἀγνός, 2 Corinthians 11:2; 1 Timothy 5:22; Titus 2:5; 1 Peter 3:2).
Till I come, give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine.
Verse 13. - Heed for attendance, A.V.; teaching for doctrine, A.V. Till I come (1 Timothy 3:14; 1 Timothy 1:3). Reading (τῇ ἀναγνώσει). The public reading of the Scriptures (the Lessons, as we should say). This we know was the practice in the synagogue (Luke 4:16, etc.; Acts 13:27; Acts 15:21; 2 Corinthians 3:15). We see the beginning of reading the New Testament in the Christian assemblies in Ephesians 3:4; and Colossians 4:16; and generally in the fact of Epistles being addressed by the apostles to Churches. The ἀναγνώστης, the reader, lector, was a regular order in the third and fourth centuries (Bingham, vol. 1. p. 288). The Grace is being revived in our day. Exhortation (τῇ παρακλήσει); see Acts 4:36, where Barnabas's name is interpreted as meaning "Son of exhortation" (R.V.), and Acts 13:15; comp. Romans 12:7 (where, as here, παράκλησις and διδασκαλία are coupled together); 1 Thessalonians 2:3, etc. Teaching (διδασκαλία); almost always rendered "doctrine" in the A.V. But here, where the act of teaching (like the act of reading, the act of exhorting, in the two preceding clauses) is intended, "teaching" is perhaps the best word according to our modern usage. As regards the difference between διδασκαλία and παράκλησις, the former would express "doctrinal teaching," whether of dogma or of precept, the latter entreaties to believe the one and practice the other (see Acts 11:23 and Acts 14:22 for good examples of πράκλησις).
Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery.
Verse 14. - The gift (χάρισμα). The verb χαρίζομαι means "to give anything freely," gratuitously, of mere good will, without any payment or return (Luke 7:42; Acts 27:24; Romans 8:32; 1 Corinthians 2:12, etc.). Hence χάρισμα came to be especially applied to the gifts of the Holy Spirit, which are preeminently "free gifts" (see Acts 8:20). It is so applied in Romans 1:11; Romans 12:6; 1 Corinthians 1:7; 1 Corinthians 12:4, 9, 28, 30, 31; 1 Peter 4:10. Here, then, as in the similar passage, 2 Timothy 1:6, the "gift" spoken of is the special grace given by the Holy Ghost to those who are separated for "the office and work of a priest in the Church of God by the imposition of hands" (Ordering of Priests). This gift St. Paul bids him not neglect (μὴ ἀμέλει). The word contains the idea of contemptuous neglect - neglect as of an unimportant thing. In Matthew 22:5 the persons invited to the feast made light of it, and went away to other things which they cared mere about. In Hebrews 2:3, τηλικαύτης ἀμελήσαντες σωτηρίας, and Hebrews 8:9, imply a contemptuous disregard. So here Timothy is reminded that in his ordination he received a great χάρισμα, and that he must value it duly, and use it diligently. It must not be let lie slumbering and smoldering, but must be stirred up into a flame. The lesson here and in 2 Timothy 1:6 seems to be that we must look back to our ordination, and to the spiritual grace given in it, as things not exhausted. The grace is there, but it must not be lightly thought cf. Which was given thee by prophecy. This seems to be explained by Acts 13:1-3, where Barnabas and Saul were separated for their work by the laying on of the hands apparently of the prophets and teachers, at the express command of the Holy Ghost, speaking doubtless by the mouth of one of the prophets. Timothy, it appears, was designated for his work by a like command of the Holy Ghost, speaking by one of the Church prophets, and received his commission by a like "laying on of hands" by the elders of the Church. If St. Paul refers, as he appears to do, to the same occasion in 2 Timothy 1:6, then it appears that he laid his hands on Timothy, together with the presbyters, as is done by the bishop in the ordination of priests. The presbytery (τοῦ πρεσβυτερίου). The word is borrowed from the Jewish nomenclature (see Luke 22:6; Acts 22:5). In a slightly different sense for "the office of a presbyter," Sus., 5:50 (Cod. Alex.).
Meditate upon these things; give thyself wholly to them; that thy profiting may appear to all.
Verse 15. - Be diligent in for meditate upon, A.V.; progress for profiting, A.V.; be manifest unto for appear to, A.V. Be diligent, etc. (αῦτα μελέτα). Give all your attention and care and study to these things. It is just the contrary to μὴ ἀμέλει in ver. 14. The verb μελετάω, besides this passage, occurs in its classical sense of "premeditating" or "getting up a speech," in Mark 13:11 (where, however, the reading is doubtful), and again in Acts 4:25, in the sense of "premeditating" certain actions. A kindred use in classical Greek is "to practice" or "exercise" an art, as rhetoric, dancing, shooting with a bow, and the like. It is very common in the LXX., in the sense of "meditating," practicing in the thoughts. Give thyself wholly to them (ἐν τούτοις ἴσθι); literally, be in these things; i.e. be wholly and always occupied with them. The similar phrases in Greek and Latin classics are Ἐν τούτοις ὁ Καῖσαρ ῆν (Plutarch); "Omnis in hoc sum" (Her., 'Ep.,' 1:1. 1); "Nescio quid meditans nugarum, et totus in illis" (Her., 'Sat.,' 1. 9. 2); and in the LXX., Ἐν φόβῳ Κυρίου ἰσθι ο{λην τὴν ἡμέραν (Proverbs 23:17). Thy progress (ἡ προκοπή). Progress, advance, or growth, is the idea of προκοπή. It is used twice in Philippians 1:12, 25. A good example of its use in classical Greek is that in Polyb., 3:4, Αὔξησις καὶ προκοπὴ τὴς Ρωμαίων δυναστείας. The use of the verb προκόπτω for "to advance," "make progress," is still more common (Luke 2:52; Romans 13:12; Galatians L 14; 2 Timothy 2:16; 2 Timothy 3:9, 14). It is used equally of progress in good or evil. Unto all. The R.T. reads πᾶσιν for ἐν πᾶσιν in the T.R., which may be rendered either "to [or, 'among'] all persons" or "in all things."
Take heed unto thyself, and unto the doctrine; continue in them: for in doing this thou shalt both save thyself, and them that hear thee.
Verse 16. - To for unto, A.V. (twice); thy leaching for the doctrine, A.V.; these things for them, A.V.; save both for both sate, A.V. Take heed (ἔπεχε); as in Acts 3:5 (see too Luke 14:7). Thy teaching. The A.V., the doctrine, is the better rendering, though the difference of meaning is very slight. The use of ἡ διδασκαλίσ in 1 Timothy 6:1 and 3, and Titus 2:10 strongly supports the sense of "doctrine," i.e. the thing taught (see note on ver. 13). Continue in these things (ἐπίμενε αὐτοῖς); comp. Acts 13:43; Romans 6:1; Romans 11:22, 23; Colossians 1:23. It is impossible to give a satisfactory solution to the question - What does αὐτοῖς refer to? It seems to me necessarily to refer to what immediately precedes, viz. σεαυτῷ καὶ τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ, and so to refer rather to the sense of the words than to the exact grammar. The things which he was to "take heed to" were his own conduct and example (included in σεαυτῷ) an d the doctrine which he preached; and in a steady continuance in these things - faithful living and faithful teaching - he would save both himself and his hearers. The application of the words to the ταῦτα of ver. 15, or to all the things enumerated from ver. 12 onwards, or, taken as a masculine, to the Ephesians, or the hearers, as variously proposed by eminent commentators, seems alike impossible.

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