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Song of Solomon
1 Samuel 17 COMMENTARY (Matthew Henry)
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1 Samuel 17
Matthew Henry's Commentary
1 Samuel 17:1
Now the Philistines gathered together their armies to battle, and were gathered together at Shochoh, which
to Judah, and pitched between Shochoh and Azekah, in Ephesdammim.
17:1-11 Men so entirely depend upon God in all things, that when he withdraws his help, the most valiant and resolute cannot find their hearts or hands, as daily experience shows.
1 Samuel 17:2
And Saul and the men of Israel were gathered together, and pitched by the valley of Elah, and set the battle in array against the Philistines.
1 Samuel 17:3
And the Philistines stood on a mountain on the one side, and Israel stood on a mountain on the other side: and
a valley between them.
1 Samuel 17:4
And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height
six cubits and a span.
1 Samuel 17:5
an helmet of brass upon his head, and he
armed with a coat of mail; and the weight of the coat
five thousand shekels of brass.
1 Samuel 17:6
greaves of brass upon his legs, and a target of brass between his shoulders.
1 Samuel 17:7
And the staff of his spear
like a weaver's beam; and his spear's head
six hundred shekels of iron: and one bearing a shield went before him.
1 Samuel 17:8
And he stood and cried unto the armies of Israel, and said unto them, Why are ye come out to set
battle in array?
not I a Philistine, and ye servants to Saul? choose you a man for you, and let him come down to me.
1 Samuel 17:9
If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be your servants: but if I prevail against him, and kill him, then shall ye be our servants, and serve us.
1 Samuel 17:10
And the Philistine said, I defy the armies of Israel this day; give me a man, that we may fight together.
1 Samuel 17:11
When Saul and all Israel heard those words of the Philistine, they were dismayed, and greatly afraid.
1 Samuel 17:12
the son of that Ephrathite of Bethlehemjudah, whose name
Jesse; and he had eight sons: and the man went among men
an old man in the days of Saul.
17:12-30 Jesse little thought of sending his son to the army at that critical juncture; but the wise God orders actions and affairs, so as to serve his designs. In times of general formality and lukewarmness, every degree of zeal which implies readiness to go further, or to venture more in the cause of God than others, will be blamed as pride and ambition, and by none more than by near relations, like Eliab, or negligent superiors. It was a trial of David's meekness, patience, and constancy. He had right and reason on his side, and did not render railing for railing; with a soft answer he turned away his brother's wrath. This conquest of his own passion was more honourable than that of Goliath. Those who undertake great and public services, must not think it strange if they are spoken ill of, and opposed by those from whom they expect support and assistance. They must humbly go on with their work, in the face not only of enemies' threats, but of friends' slights and suspicions.
1 Samuel 17:13
And the three eldest sons of Jesse went
followed Saul to the battle: and the names of his three sons that went to the battle
Eliab the firstborn, and next unto him Abinadab, and the third Shammah.
1 Samuel 17:14
the youngest: and the three eldest followed Saul.
1 Samuel 17:15
But David went and returned from Saul to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem.
1 Samuel 17:16
And the Philistine drew near morning and evening, and presented himself forty days.
1 Samuel 17:17
And Jesse said unto David his son, Take now for thy brethren an ephah of this parched
, and these ten loaves, and run to the camp to thy brethren;
1 Samuel 17:18
And carry these ten cheeses unto the captain of
thousand, and look how thy brethren fare, and take their pledge.
1 Samuel 17:19
Now Saul, and they, and all the men of Israel,
in the valley of Elah, fighting with the Philistines.
1 Samuel 17:20
And David rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took, and went, as Jesse had commanded him; and he came to the trench, as the host was going forth to the fight, and shouted for the battle.
1 Samuel 17:21
For Israel and the Philistines had put the battle in array, army against army.
1 Samuel 17:22
And David left his carriage in the hand of the keeper of the carriage, and ran into the army, and came and saluted his brethren.
1 Samuel 17:23
And as he talked with them, behold, there came up the champion, the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name, out of the armies of the Philistines, and spake according to the same words: and David heard
1 Samuel 17:24
And all the men of Israel, when they saw the man, fled from him, and were sore afraid.
1 Samuel 17:25
And the men of Israel said, Have ye seen this man that is come up? surely to defy Israel is he come up: and it shall be,
the man who killeth him, the king will enrich him with great riches, and will give him his daughter, and make his father's house free in Israel.
1 Samuel 17:26
And David spake to the men that stood by him, saying, What shall be done to the man that killeth this Philistine, and taketh away the reproach from Israel? for who
this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God?
1 Samuel 17:27
And the people answered him after this manner, saying, So shall it be done to the man that killeth him.
1 Samuel 17:28
And Eliab his eldest brother heard when he spake unto the men; and Eliab's anger was kindled against David, and he said, Why camest thou down hither? and with whom hast thou left those few sheep in the wilderness? I know thy pride, and the naughtiness of thine heart; for thou art come down that thou mightest see the battle.
1 Samuel 17:29
And David said, What have I now done?
not a cause?
1 Samuel 17:30
And he turned from him toward another, and spake after the same manner: and the people answered him again after the former manner.
1 Samuel 17:31
And when the words were heard which David spake, they rehearsed
before Saul: and he sent for him.
17:31-39 A shepherd lad, come the same morning from keeping sheep, had more courage than all the mighty men of Israel. Thus God often sends good words to his Israel, and does great things for them, by the weak and foolish things of the world. As he had answered his brother's passion with meekness, so David answered Saul's fear with faith. When David kept sheep, he proved himself very careful and tender of his flock. This reminds us of Christ, the good Shepherd, who not only ventured, but laid down his life for the sheep. Our experience ought to encourage us to trust in God, and be bold in the way of duty. He that has delivered, does and will continue to do so. David gained leave to fight the Philistine. Not being used to such armour as Saul put upon him, he was not satisfied to go in that manner; this was from the Lord, that it might more plainly appear he fought and conquered in faith, and that the victory was from Him who works by the feeblest and most despised means and instruments. It is not to be inquired how excellent any thing is, but how proper. Let Saul's coat be ever so rich, and his armour ever so strong, what is David the better if they fit him not? But faith, prayer, truth, and righteousness; the whole armour of God, and the mind that was in Christ; are equally needful for all the servants of the Lord, whatever may be their work.
1 Samuel 17:32
And David said to Saul, Let no man's heart fail because of him; thy servant will go and fight with this Philistine.
1 Samuel 17:33
And Saul said to David, Thou art not able to go against this Philistine to fight with him: for thou
a youth, and he a man of war from his youth.
1 Samuel 17:34
And David said unto Saul, Thy servant kept his father's sheep, and there came a lion, and a bear, and took a lamb out of the flock:
1 Samuel 17:35
And I went out after him, and smote him, and delivered
out of his mouth: and when he arose against me, I caught
by his beard, and smote him, and slew him.
1 Samuel 17:36
Thy servant slew both the lion and the bear: and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, seeing he hath defied the armies of the living God.
1 Samuel 17:37
David said moreover, The LORD that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine. And Saul said unto David, Go, and the LORD be with thee.
1 Samuel 17:38
And Saul armed David with his armour, and he put an helmet of brass upon his head; also he armed him with a coat of mail.
1 Samuel 17:39
And David girded his sword upon his armour, and he assayed to go; for he had not proved
. And David said unto Saul, I cannot go with these; for I have not proved
. And David put them off him.
1 Samuel 17:40
And he took his staff in his hand, and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them in a shepherd's bag which he had, even in a scrip; and his sling
in his hand: and he drew near to the Philistine.
17:40-47 The security and presumption of fools destroy them. Nothing can excel the humility, faith, and piety which appear in David's words. He expressed his assured expectation of success; he gloried in his mean appearance and arms, that the victory might be ascribed to the Lord alone.
1 Samuel 17:41
And the Philistine came on and drew near unto David; and the man that bare the shield
1 Samuel 17:42
And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him: for he was
a youth, and ruddy, and of a fair countenance.
1 Samuel 17:43
And the Philistine said unto David,
I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves? And the Philistine cursed David by his gods.
1 Samuel 17:44
And the Philistine said to David, Come to me, and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field.
1 Samuel 17:45
Then said David to the Philistine, Thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield: but I come to thee in the name of the LORD of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied.
1 Samuel 17:46
This day will the LORD deliver thee into mine hand; and I will smite thee, and take thine head from thee; and I will give the carcases of the host of the Philistines this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild beasts of the earth; that all the earth may know that there is a God in Israel.
1 Samuel 17:47
And all this assembly shall know that the LORD saveth not with sword and spear: for the battle
the LORD'S, and he will give you into our hands.
1 Samuel 17:48
And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew nigh to meet David, that David hasted, and ran toward the army to meet the Philistine.
17:48-58 See how frail and uncertain life is, even when a man thinks himself best fortified; how quickly, how easily, and by how small a matter, the passage may be opened for life to go out, and death to enter! Let not the strong man glory in his strength, nor the armed man in his armour. God resists the proud, and pours contempt on those who defy him and his people. No one ever hardened his heart against God and prospered. The history is recorded, that all may exert themselves for the honour of God, and the support of his cause, with bold and unshaken reliance on him. There is one conflict in which all the followers of the Lamb are, and must be engaged; one enemy, more formidable than Goliath, still challenges the armies of Israel. But resist the devil, and he will flee from you. Go forth to battle with the faith of David, and the powers of darkness shall not stand against you. But how often is the Christian foiled through an evil heart of unbelief!
1 Samuel 17:49
And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence a stone, and slang
, and smote the Philistine in his forehead, that the stone sunk into his forehead; and he fell upon his face to the earth.
1 Samuel 17:50
So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone, and smote the Philistine, and slew him; but
no sword in the hand of David.
1 Samuel 17:51
Therefore David ran, and stood upon the Philistine, and took his sword, and drew it out of the sheath thereof, and slew him, and cut off his head therewith. And when the Philistines saw their champion was dead, they fled.
1 Samuel 17:52
And the men of Israel and of Judah arose, and shouted, and pursued the Philistines, until thou come to the valley, and to the gates of Ekron. And the wounded of the Philistines fell down by the way to Shaaraim, even unto Gath, and unto Ekron.
1 Samuel 17:53
And the children of Israel returned from chasing after the Philistines, and they spoiled their tents.
1 Samuel 17:54
And David took the head of the Philistine, and brought it to Jerusalem; but he put his armour in his tent.
1 Samuel 17:55
And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said unto Abner, the captain of the host, Abner, whose son
this youth? And Abner said,
thy soul liveth, O king, I cannot tell.
1 Samuel 17:56
And the king said, Inquire thou whose son the stripling
1 Samuel 17:57
And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, Abner took him, and brought him before Saul with the head of the Philistine in his hand.
1 Samuel 17:58
And Saul said to him, Whose son
young man? And David answered,
the son of thy servant Jesse the Bethlehemite.
Courtesy of Open Bible
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