“Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:”
King James Version (KJV)
5:12 Therefore - This refers to all the preceding discourse; from which the apostle infers what follows. He does not therefore properly make a digression, but returns to speak again of sin and of righteousness. As by one man - Adam; who is mentioned, and not Eve, as being the representative of mankind. Sin entered into the world - Actual sin, and its consequence, a sinful nature. And death - With all its attendants. It entered into the world when it entered into being; for till then it did not exist. By sin - Therefore it could not enter before sin. Even so - Namely, by one man. In that - So the word is used also, #2Cor 5:4|. All sinned - In Adam. These words assign the reason why death came upon all men; infants themselves not excepted, in that all sinned.
Ro 5:12 Wherefore. The section which now follows is one of the most difficult in the Bible to explain clearly in the compass of a few words. It opens up one of the profoundest questions of theology. The "wherefore" refers to the reconciliation (atonement) of Christ spoken of in Ro 5:11. Christ's work of atonement and the effect of Adam's sins are contrasted. As by one man. By the sin of Adam. Sin entered into the world. The world of mankind is meant. Death by sin. Death was led in by sin. Had there been no sin, there had been no death. "The tree of life stood in the midst of the garden" (Ge 2:9). So death passed upon all men. As the result of one man's sin. For that all have sinned. The personal sins of responsible persons are not now spoken of, but all the race sinned in Adam, its representative, infants, idiots, and all. Hence all die.