THE GOSPEL ACCORDING to S. Matthew.
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1 Christs resurrection is declared by an Angel, to the women. 9 He himselfe appeareth vnto them. 11 The high Priests giue the souldiers money to say that he was stollen out of his sepulchre. 16 Christ appeareth to his disciples, 19 and sendeth them to baptize and teach all Nations.
* Courtesy of Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania
View People's New Testament Notes for Matthew Chapter 28
Mt 28:1 The Resurrection SUMMARY OF MATTHEW 28: The Women at the Sepulcher. The Message of the Angel. The Risen Lord. The Report of the Guard. The Charge of the Priests. Christ Appears to the Eleven. The Meeting in Galilee. The Great Commission. In the end of the sabbath. After the Sabbath in which Jesus had lain in the tomb. As it began to dawn. All the gospels mark the precious moment when the great news first became known. Mark says they arrived at sunrise (Mr 16:2). Compare Mr 16:1-8 Lu 24:1-11 Joh 20:1-21 1Co 15:1-20. The first [day] of the week. The Lord's day, or Sunday. Came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary. Mary, the mother of James and Joses (Mr 15:47). Also Salome (Mr 16:1). Late on Friday evening they had watched the sepulcher (Mt 27:56). Now, after the Sabbath, they came with spices in the hope that they could anoint the body (Mr 16:1). These disciples would not break the Sabbath, even to preserve the body of their beloved Lord. The Sabbath ended at sunset, so that Jesus had been dead and buried Friday night, Saturday, and Sunday morning, beginning at the previous sunset, three days according to Jewish reckoning. See 1Sa 30:12-13 2Ch 10:5,12.
Mt 28:2 Behold, there was a great earthquake. The Greek word "seismos", rendered "earthquake", is rendered "tempest" in Mt 8:24. It means a "commotion". It is not needful to decide that there was more than a local disturbance. For the angel of the Lord descended. An angel. There is no article. All the gospels speak of the angelic appearance at the tomb, though some give details omitted by others. Rolled back the stone. The commotion, or earthquake, accompanied the rolling back of the stone. Alford says: ``It was not for him to whom (Joh 20:19,20) the stone was no hindrance, but for the women and disciples that it was rolled away.''
Mt 28:3 His countenance was like lightning. Was bright like lightning. Compare Ex 34:29 Mt 17:2 Re 1:14. And his raiment white as snow. White is the emblem of purity. So was the Savior's raiment at the Transfiguration, and the robes of the saints as described in Revelation.
Mt 28:4 The keepers. The Roman soldiers placed to guard the tomb with Pilate's consent (Mt 27:65,66).
Mt 28:5 Ye seek Jesus, who was crucified. The angel does not forget that Jesus is the crucified one, nor do the redeemed in heaven (Re 5:6 Re 7:9).
Mt 28:6 He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. The women had not seen him rise and had to be informed. They therefore came to the sepulcher after the resurrection. Christ had risen "as he said". For the prophecies of a resurrection see Mt 16:21 Lu 24:6. See the place where the Lord lay. The angel does not say "your", but "the" Lord--the Lord of the angels as well as men.
Mt 28:7 Tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead. To woman it was first announced that the birth of the child whose name should be Jesus, "because he should save his people from their sins" (Mt 1:21) was near; women were the last of his disciples to linger at the cross or to watch at the sepulcher; they were the first to see the empty tomb, to hear the glad news, or to be sent to tell the story of their risen Lord. He goeth before you into Galilee. They are cited to Galilee to meet the Lord, not that his only appearance would be there, for that was the seventh, but because, in that country, where the largest number of his disciples lived, he proposed to reveal himself to the whole body of saints. There he was seen "by about five hundred brethren at once" (1Co 15:6).
Mt 28:9 Jesus met them, saying, All hail. This was the second appearance of the Risen Savior. The appearances were: (1) To Mary Magdalene alone, near Jerusalem--Sunday, April 9 (Mr 16:9 Joh 20:11-18). (2) To the women returning from the sepulcher (Mt 28:9-10). (3) To Simon Peter alone (Lu 24:34). (4) To the two disciples going to Emmaus (Lu 24:13). (5) To the apostles at Jerusalem, excepting Thomas, who was absent. These are all the same day (Joh 20:19). (6) To the apostles at Jerusalem a second time, when Thomas was present--Sunday, one week later (Joh 20:26,29). (7) At the Sea of Tiberias, when seven disciples were fishing (Joh 21:1). (8) To the eleven disciples on a mountain in Galilee (Mt 28:16). (9) To about five hundred brethren at once, in Galilee, near the time of the last. It is possible these two are identical (1Co 15:6). (10) To James only (1Co 15:7). (11) To all the apostles on Mt. Olivet at his ascension-- Thursday, May 18 (Lu 24:51). (12) We may add to these that he was seen by Saul of Tarsus and by John on Patmos (Ac 9:3 Re 1:13).
Mt 28:10 Be not afraid. They had met the Lord while hastening to tell the story of his resurrection. It is when we are in the path of duty that we will enjoy his presence and his blessing. Go tell my brethren. This is the first time he had called the disciples his brethren.
Mt 28:11 Behold, some of the watch came into the city. The time when these men went into the city is noted. It was while the women were on their way to tell the disciples. It is also stated that "some of the watch" only went to the priests. How numerous the watch was we are not informed. As the watch had been set by the priests themselves, it made its report to them instead of to Pilate (Mt 27:65,66).
Mt 28:12 They. The chief priests. Were assembled with the elders. Probably a secret meeting of the leading members of the Sanhedrin. They had gone too far into crime to stop.
Mt 28:13 His disciples came by night, etc. The improbability of this story is easily seen: (1) The soldiers would not dare to go to sleep on guard. It was death. (2) If they had gone to sleep they could testify nothing of what was done while asleep. Their testimony of what occurred then would be worthless. (3) The disciples did not expect a resurrection and would hardly believe it when it occurred. (4) They had shown themselves cowards and would not have dared to take his body away. (5) Had they dared, had the Roman soldiers slept, they could not have removed the stone and carried off the body without detection. It was a night lighted with the full moon and all the environs of Jerusalem were crowded with people attending the passover.
Mt 28:14 If this shall come to the governor's ears, etc. As he had taken so little interest in the matter as to leave the watch to them it was not likely it would come to his ears at all, as we know that he was wont to spend only a few days at Jerusalem and then return to Caesarea.
Mt 28:15 This saying is commonly reported . . . until this day. It was still current among the Jews when Justin Martyr wrote in the second century, at least a hundred years after Matthew penned these words.
Mt 28:16 The eleven disciples went away into Galilee. The time when they went to Galilee is not stated, though we learn from Joh 20:26 that they remained in Judea for over a week after the resurrection. Of the appearances in Galilee we have three accounts: the brief one here, which describes the official meeting of the Lord with the entire body of disciples: the one by the sea, described in Joh 21:1, and the reference by Paul in 1Co 15:6. The eleven went into Galilee because the Lord had commanded them to do so. Into a mountain where Jesus had appointed. The Revised Version says, "the mountain", which is correct. The Lord had named the mountain where he should meet them, and had probably also appointed the time. The object of the appointment was probably to secure a general meeting of his disciples.
Mt 28:17 When they saw him, they worshipped him. It is also stated of the women (Mt 28:9) that they worshiped him, or kneeled at his feet. Some doubted. This does not, as I suppose, refer to the eleven. The doubts of all, including the skeptical Thomas, had been silenced before this. But the story that he had risen seemed so incredible, that there were those assembled on this occasion who had been doubters. These, "when they saw him", remained doubters no longer, but "worshiped him".
Mt 28:18 Spake unto them. To the whole assembly of five hundred brethren (1Co 15:6). A commission had been given long before to the twelve apostles (Mt 10:1-15), and also to the seventy, but it differed widely from the one now given. It confined the preaching to the Jews, and announced the kingdom of heaven as yet in the future. Now the preachers of Christ are sent, by the authority of the King, to make disciples of all nations. The old dispensation had ended with the cross. The new one had begun with the resurrection. All power. Henceforth he was the King and Judge of the nations. The word "is given" denotes the source from whence he obtained his power, and implies that it was not inherent in the Son. Php 2:9 indicates that it was given to him after, and in consequence of, his voluntary humiliation; and 1Co 15:27, shows that it held in subjection to the Father. It was because the authority to rule the world had been placed in his hands that he issued his commands that it should be conquered.
Mt 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations. "Go ye therefore and make disciples of all nations" (Revised Version). There are several things to be noticed: (1) "Go", implies an aggressive warfare. The Gospel army must move upon the nations. The Lord seeks universal empire, and sends forth his armies to conquer the world. Every church and every disciple must understand that they have marching orders. (2) Not only is every saint commanded to "go", or to take steps to make the gospel go, but the object is stated. They are to make "disciples", or pupils, and scholars of Christ; not great philosophers, but "babes in Christ Jesus" (1Co 3:1), who have entered the school of Christ and are to be taught afterwards. (3) Who are to be made disciples is next indicated. Not the Jews only, but "all nations". Christ came to be the Savior of the world. His is a universal religion. In the Great Commission he looks beyond Judea, and commands that the Gospel shall be offered to all nations. The test of eighteen centuries shows that Christianity is not local or national, but is adapted to the needs of all mankind. (4) It is next stated how disciples shall be made. Baptizing them. The rite by which those who believe upon him should be formally enlisted and enrolled in the school of Christ is baptism. It is a baptism of the Spirit that he means, because it is one that those whom he addresses are commanded to administer. He alone baptized with the Spirit; his apostles and disciples baptized in water, and it is to this rite that he refers. Hence, when we turn to the preaching of the apostles under this commission, we find that all converts were at once baptized (Ac 2:38-41 8:12-18). (5) The end or result of baptism is also given. Converts were to be baptized into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. It is a positive affirmation of the Old Testament that where the name of the Lord is recorded there will he meet his disciples, or there will be his presence. See Ex 20:24. The Lord declares that the three names, that of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, are recorded in baptism. In this rite, then, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit meet the believer; the Father to receive him as a child, the Son to welcome him as a brother, and to cover him with the mantle of his own purity; the Holy Spirit to endow him with that Spirit by which he can say, "Abba, Father". "Into the name of" is equivalent to "into the presence of", or "into the Father, and into the Son, and into the Holy Spirit".
Mt 28:20 Teaching them. The second part of the commission is next given. The first part commands the making of disciples, and tells how they must be made. The second part provides for the instruction of the disciples in righteousness. This is to be done by "teaching them". To observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you. What must be taught by the faithful Christian teacher is prescribed. It will at once be seen that this cuts off much that is often taught. We are not to teach "untaught questions" (2Ti 2:23), "oppositions of science, so called" (1Ti 6:20), dogmatic speculations, isms or human creeds. Christ has never commanded these. On the other hand, we are to teach "all things" he has commanded. Some of these things we have recorded in the Gospels; others we have in the Acts and in the Epistles. They embrace the various duties of Christian life. I am with you alway. It was an arduous work he had commanded his disciples to undertake; a few uninfluential and unlettered laboring men to undertake the moral and religious conquest of a world that had just crucified their Master. There was, however, an assurance that they should be equal to the task, for (1) All power, or authority, in heaven and earth was in the hands of their crucified Lord. (2) He now declares, "I am with you always". He who has all power will be present with them, a help in time of need. He is a mighty, present and helping Savior. [Even] unto the end of the world. Until the close of the Christian dispensation, coming of the Lord, and the day of judgment.
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