“James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting.”
King James Version (KJV)
1:1 A servant of Jesus Christ - Whose name the apostle mentions but once more in the whole epistle, #James 2:1|. And not at all in his whole discourse, #Acts 15:14|, &c.; or #Acts 21:20 |- 25. It might have seemed, if he mentioned him often, that he did it out of vanity, as being the brother of the Lord. To the twelve tribes - Of Israel; that is, those of them that believe. Which are scattered abroad - In various countries. Ten of the tribes were scattered ever since the reign of Hosea; and great part of the rest were now dispersed through the Roman empire: as was foretold, #Deut 28:25|, &c.30:4. Greeting - That is, all blessings, temporal and eternal.
Jas 1:1 On Temptations SUMMARY OF JAMES 1: Rejoicing in Trial. Seeking Wisdom. Stability Urged. The Source of Temptation. The Fountain of All Blessings. Pure and Undefiled Religion. James. See Introduction concerning the writer. He is called by Paul (Ga 1:19) and by Josephus the brother of Jesus. A servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ. It seems probable from the title assumed that James was not an apostle. With only a few exceptions the Epistles begin with a reference to the apostleship of the writer. To the twelve tribes. The Jews are often so designated. See Ex 24:4 28:21 39:14 Eze 47:13 Mt 19:28 Lu 22:30 Ac 26:7 Re 21:12. Which are scattered abroad. Rather "of the Dispersion", a term applied to Jews outside of Judea.